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Midgardsormr
12-21-2007, 09:47 PM
It's come up a couple of times that we should have a thread where we can post terms related to maps and cartography. I recently ran across a new word, so it seemed like a good time to make one. A thread, that is. So, without further ado, my new word is:

Hachure: Short lines attached to, and perpendicular with a contour line usually used to indicate a depression contour.

Hachures were used extensively by Pete Fenlon in his maps of Middle Earth, published for the Middle Earth RolePlaying Game by ICE.

Neatline: Line separating the body of a map from the map margin. On a standard quadrangle map, the neatlines are the meridians and parallels delimiting the quadrangle.

Rhumb Line (http://www.cartographersguild.com/showthread.php?t=1281): A line on the surface of the earth that crosses all meridians at a constant angle.

Rhumb Lines are often referred to as "navigation lines."

Graticule: A network of parallels and meridians on a map or chart.

(From http:\\www.maps-gps-info.com )

NeonKnight
12-22-2007, 12:28 AM
Well, from my Map & COmpass courses I took many Year's ago:

TRUE NORTH The definitive North Pole, the point at which the globe rotates. True north is a navigational term referring to the direction of the North Pole relative to the navigator's position. Its concept was first discovered and noted by the Chinese polymath Shen Kuo in the 11th century.

Grid North Grid north is a navigational term referring to the direction northwards along the grid lines of a map projection. It is contrasted with true north (the direction of the North Pole) and magnetic north (the direction of the Magnetic North Pole). Many topographic maps, including those of the United States Geological Survey and the Ordnance Survey, indicate the difference between grid north, true north, and magnetic north.

MAgnetic North The magnetic declination (also known as grid magnetic angle in military circles) at any point on the Earth is the angle between the local magnetic field -- the direction the north end of a compass points -- and true north. The declination is positive when the magnetic north is east of true north. The term magnetic variation is equivalent, and is more often used in aeronautical and other forms of navigation. Isogonic lines are where the declination has the same value, and the lines where the declination is zero are called agonic lines

RobA
12-22-2007, 09:17 AM
This is great!

At they accumulate here, we will get them transferred to the FAQ Mapping section (http://www.cartographersguild.com/faq.php) (which is rather spartan at the moment :) )
-Rob A>

RPMiller
12-22-2007, 03:26 PM
In the meantime, I went ahead and made the thread sticky so that others would be able to find easy enough.

ravells
12-22-2007, 03:56 PM
Not forgetting the good old 'Cartouche' - decorative panel: a decorative panel in the form of a frame or unrolled scroll, sometimes containing writing, forming an artistic or architectural feature

This is a great thread. Brilliant idea, Mid

buddha6
02-18-2008, 03:10 PM
If anyone's interested, I have the Army's Map Reading Field Manual (FM 21-26) in a 10 mb zip archive...as well as another one, Topographic Symbols (FM 21-31)...I guess I could upload it somewhere here, or place a link to it on one of my wesbites. Let me know what folks think best.

ravells
02-19-2008, 05:08 AM
Thanks for offer buddha - I found the topographical symbols on line, but not the map reading field manual. (I'm interested in this as I like to go hiking rather than from a cartographic point of view!)

Topographical Symbols here (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/policy/army/fm/21-31/index.html)

buddha6
02-19-2008, 07:39 AM
I didn't realize the globalsecurity.org folks had posted those...thanks for the pointer. The map reading FM is available there as well...it's FM 3-25-26 IAW with the new numbering protocol. A portion of our property, here in VA bounds the Appalachian Trail and we see lots of hikers when we're out there...good luck on the hikes. :)

su_liam
02-19-2008, 03:35 PM
That's an interesting resource. I wish the images were a little larger. Hard to steal if they're so reduced. ;)

Here's a list of generic terms (http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/apc/genericterms.html) for toponyms(you know, "Hudson Bay," "Rocky Mountains"). It's specific to Antarctica, but most terms would be useful generally. It' can be good for avoiding everything being named, "Sea of...," "... Mountains," "... River."

Honestly, this is more the kind of thing I was hoping to find in this thread. I'd also like to find more foreign terms with definitions, such as gebirge, erg, wadi, etc...

ravells
02-19-2008, 05:19 PM
Nice one Su liam - that's very useful indeed.

Midgardsormr
02-19-2008, 07:25 PM
Honestly, this is more the kind of thing I was hoping to find in this thread. I'd also like to find more foreign terms with definitions, such as gebirge, erg, wadi, etc...

So then would you care to provide definitions for those terms? I know wadi, though:

Wadi: A riverbed that is dry most of the year. (Arabic)

RobA
02-19-2008, 08:32 PM
Honestly, this is more the kind of thing I was hoping to find in this thread. I'd also like to find more foreign terms with definitions, such as gebirge, erg, wadi, etc...

Well, you can't beat Wikipedia for that... convenient organized into the following categories:

1.1 Coastal and oceanic landforms
1.2 Erosion landforms
1.3 Fluvial landforms
1.4 Mountain and glacial landforms
1.5 Slope landforms
1.6 Volcanic landforms
1.7 Deposition landform


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Landform

-Rob A>

Midgardsormr
03-22-2008, 10:41 PM
Bathymetry: The underwater counterpart to topography. The representation of ocean depth on a map.

su_liam
03-25-2008, 02:25 PM
Gebirge - (German) mountains, mountain range
Erg - (Arabic) dune, sandy desert
Hamada - (Arabic) rocky plateau
Chott - (Arabic) salt lake
Djebel - (Arabic) mountain
Nahr - (Arabic) river
Oued - (Arabic) river
Sahara - (Arabic) desert, plain
Sebkha - (Arabic) salt marsh

There's a start.

Midgardsormr
05-24-2008, 11:06 PM
Inset: Some maps feature an enlargement of an important area, such as a city or harbor, usually in an otherwise unused corner.

ravells
05-28-2008, 08:15 AM
I can't believe there is a word for this:

hachures


/hashyoorz/
• plural noun parallel lines used on maps to shade in hills, their closeness indicating steepness of gradient.
— DERIVATIVES hachured adjective. — ORIGIN French, from hacher (see HATCH (http://www.askoxford.com/concise_oed/hatch_3)3).

Arkkeeper
05-28-2008, 02:09 PM
Just to reiterate what we all already know but still should have in the list:

Compass: symbol which represents the the orientation of the map and the direction of north, south, east, and west.

Latitude: Distance Measuring lines going North and South

Longitude: Distance Measuring lines going East and West "Remember when a map has North up, The Longitude lines are long

Key: A box that gives definitions of the symbols used on the map

Scale: The size of the map relative to the actual area the map is displaying.

and here a buttload of a list I found (note: some of these might not apply or have already been listed, it was too big to really go through):

accuracy
Degree of conformity with a standard. Accuracy relates to the quality of a result and is distinguished from precision which relates to the quality of the operation by which the result is obtained.

adjustment
Process designed to remove inconsistencies in measured or computed quantities by applying derived corrections to compensate for random or accidental errors.

adjustment, land- line
Positioning land lines on a map to indicate their true, theoretical, or approximate location relative to the adjacent terrain and culture, by reconciling the information shown on Bureau of Land Management plats and field records with the ground evidence of the location of the lines.

adjustment, standard accuracy
Adjustment of a survey resulting in values for positions and (or) elevations that comply with the National Map Accuracy Standards.

aerotriangulation
The process of developing a network of horizontal and or vertical positions from a group of known positions using direct or indirect measurements from aerial photographs and mathematical computations.

alidade
Instrument, or part of an instrument , for determining direction , either horizontal or vertical . In its simplest form, a peepsight or telescope mounted on a straightedge and used for plotting directions graphically. In such instruments as transits and theodolites, the alidade is the part containing the telescope and its attachments.

altimeter
Instrument for measuring altitudes or elevations with respect to a reference level, usually mean sea level. The most common type is an aneroid barometer. A radar altimeter determines the height of an aircraft above the terrain by measuring the time required for an electromagnetic pulse to travel from aircraft to the ground and back.

azimuth
Horizontal direction reckoned clockwise from the meridian plane.

backshore
Part of a beach that is usually dry and is reached only by the highest tides; by extension, a narrow strip of relatively flat coast bordering the sea.

base map
See: map, base.

bathymetric map
See: map, bathymetric

bathymetry
Science of measuring water depths (usually in the ocean) to determine bottom topography.

beach (seabeach)
Zone of unconsolidated material that extends landward from the low water line to the place where there is marked change in material or physiographic form, or to the line of permanent vegetation (usually the effective lint of storm waves).

bench mark
Relatively permanent material object, natural or artificial, bearing a marked point whose elevation above or below an adopted datum is known.

boundary monument
Material object placed on or near a boundary line to preserve and identify the location of the boundary line on the ground

boundary survey
Survey made to establish or to reestablish a boundary line on the ground, or to obtain data for constructing a map or plat showing a boundary line.

cadastral map
See: map, cadastral.

cadastral survey
Survey relating to land boundaries, made to create units suitable for title transfer or to define the limitations of title. Derived from "cadastre" meaning a register of land quantities, values, and ownership used levying taxes, the term may properly be applied to surveys of a similar nature outside the public lands, such surveys are more commonly called "land surveys" or "property surveys."

cartography
Science and art of making maps and charts. The term may be taken broadly as comprising all the steps needed to produce a map: planning, aerial photography, field surveys, photogrammetry, editing, color separation, and multicolor printing. Mapmakers, however, tend to limit use of the term to the map-finishing operations, in which the master manuscript is edited and color separation plates are prepared for lithographic printing.

chain
Unit of length equal to 66 feet, used especially in the U.S. public land surveys. The original measuring instrument (Gunter's chain) was literally a chain consisting of 100 iron links, each 7.92 inches long. Steel-ribbon tapes began to supersede chains around 1900, but surveying tapes are often still called "chains" and measuring with a tape is often called "chaining." The chain is a convenient unit in cadastral surveys because 10 square chains equal 1 acre.

chart
Special-purpose map designed for navigation or to present specific data or information. The term "chart" is applied chiefly to maps made primarily for nautical and aeronautical navigation, and to maps of the heavens, although the term is sometimes used to describe other special-purpose maps.

chart, aeronautical
Charts designed to meet requirements of aerial navigating, produced in several series, each on a specified map projection and differing in scale, format, and content, for use as dictated by type of aircraft and whether flight is to be conducted under visual or instrument flight rules.

chart, bathymetric
See: map, bathymetric

chart, nautical
Representation of a portion of the navigable waters of the Earth and adjacent coastal areas on a specified map projection and designed specifically to meet requirements for marine navigation. Included on most nautical charts are depths of water, characteristics of the bottom, elevations of selected topographic features, general configurations and characteristics of the coast, the shoreline (usually the mean high water line), dangers, obstructions and aids to navigation limited tidal data, and information about magnetic variation in the charted area.

choropleth map
See: map, choropleth

clinometric map:
See: map, slope

color separation
Process of preparing a separate drawing, engraving, or negative for each color required in the printing production of a map or chart.

compilation
Preparation of a new or revised map or chart, or portion thereof, from existing maps, aerial photographs, field surveys, and other sources.

continuous tone
Image not broken into dots by photographic screen; contains unbroken gradient tones from black to white, and may be either in negative or positive form. Aerial photographs are examples of continuous-tone prints. Contrasted with halftone (screened) and line copy.

contour
Imaginary line on ground, all points of which are at the same elevation above or below a specific datum.

contour interval
Difference in elevation between two adjacent contours.

control mapping
Points of established position or elevation, or both, which are used to fix references in positioning and correlating map features. Fundamental control is provided by stations in the national networks of triangulation and traverse (horizontal control) and leveling (vertical control). Usually it is necessary to extend geodetic surveys, based on fundamental stations, over the area to be mapped, to provide a suitable density and distribution of control points. Supplemental control points are those needed to relate the aerial photographs used for mapping with the system of ground control. These points must be positively photoidentified; that is, the points must be positively correlated with their images on the photographs.

control station
Point on the ground whose position (horizontal or vertical) is known and can be used as a base for additional survey work.

coordinates
Linear and (or) angular quantities that designate the position of a point in relation to a given reference frame.

coordinates, origin of
Points in a system of coordinates which serves as a zero point in computing the system's elements or in prescribing its use.

culture
Features constructed by man that are under, on, or above the ground which are delineated on a map. These include roads, trails, buildings, canals, sewer systems, and boundary lines. In a broad sense, the term also applies to all names, other identification, and legends on a map.

Arkkeeper
05-28-2008, 02:11 PM
datum (pl. datums)
In surveying, a reference system for computing or correlating the results of surveys. There are tow principal types of datums: vertical and horizontal. A vertical datum is a level surface to which heights are referred. In the United States, the generally adopted vertical datum for leveling operations is the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929. The horizontal datum is used as a reference for position. The North American Datum of 1927 is defined by the latitude and longitude of an initial point (Meade's Ranch in Kansas), the direction of a line between this point and a specified second point, and two dimensions that define the spheroid. The new North American Datum of 1983 is based on a newly defined spheroid (GRS80); it is an Earth-centered datum having no initial point or initial direction.
datum, national geodetic vertical See: national geodetic vertical datum of 1929

declination
In astronomy, the angular distance of a celestial body above (north, plus) or below (south, minus) the celestial Equator. Magnetic declination is the angular difference between magnetic north and true (geographic) north at the point of observation; it is not constant but varies with time because of the "wandering" of the magnetic north pole.

depth curve
Line on a map or chart connecting points of equal depth below the datum.

diazo process
Rapid method for copying documents in which the image is developed by exposure to ammonia.

dike
Bank of earth or stone used to form a barrier, frequently and confusingly interchanged with levee. A dike restrains water within an area that normally is flooded. See levee.

electronic distance measuring (EDM) device:
Instruments that measure the phase difference between transmitted and reflected or retransmitted electromagnetic waves of known frequency, or that measure the round-trip transit time of a pulsed signal, from which distance is computed.

elevation
Vertical distance of a point above or below a reference surface or datum.

ellipsoid
See: spheroid

engineering map
See: map, engineering

ER-55 plotter
Double-projection plotting instrument utilizing ellipsoidal reflectors for light projection.

erosion
Group of natural processes including weathering, dissolution, abrasion, corrosion, and transportation that remove material from any part of the Earth's surface.

estuary
That portion of a stream influenced by the tide of the body of water into which it flows; an arm of the sea at a river mouth.

feature separation
Process of preparing a separate drawing, engraving, or negative for selected types of data in the preparation of a map or chart.

flood control map
See: map, flood control

flood plain
Belt of low flat ground bordering a stream channel that is flooded when runoff exceeds the capacity of the stream channel.

forestry map
See: map, forestry

formlines
Lines, resembling contour lines, drawn to present a conception of the shape of the terrain without regard to a true datum or regular spacing

geodesy
Science concerned with the measurement and mathematical description of the size and shape of the earth and its gravitational fields. Geodesy also includes the large-scale, extended surveys for determining positions and elevations of points, in which the size and shape of the earth must be taken into account.

geoid
Figure of the Earth visualized as a mean sea level surface extended continuously through the continents. It is a theoretically continuous surface that is perpendicular at every point to the direction of gravity (the plumbline).
geologic map
See: map, geologic

graticule
Network of parallels and meridians on a map or chart.

graticule, geographic
System of coordinates of latitude and longitude used to define the position of a point on the surface of the Earth with respect to the reference spheroid.

grid
Network of uniformly spaced parallel lines intersecting at right angles. When superimposed on a map, it usually carries the name of the projection used for the map- that is, Lambert grid, transverse Mercator grid, universal transverse Mercator grid.

Arkkeeper
05-28-2008, 02:13 PM
hachure
Any series of lines used on a map to indicate the general direction and steepness of slopes. The lines are short, heavy, and close together for steep slopes; longer, lighter, and more widely spaced for gentle slopes.

halftone
A picture in which the gradations of light are obtained by the relative darkness and density of tiny dots produced by photographing the subject through a fine screen.

high water
Maximum height reached by a rising tide. The height may be due solely to the periodic tidal forces or it may have superimposed upon it the effects of prevailing meteorological conditions. Use of the "high tide" is discouraged.

high water line
Intersection of the land with the water surface at an elevation of high water.

high water mark
Line or mark left upon tidal flats, beach, or along shore objects indicating the elevation or the intrusion of high water.

hydrographic survey
Survey of water area, with particular reference to submarine relief, and any adjacent land. See: oceanographic survey

hydrography
Science that deals with the measurement and description of the physical features of the oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, and their adjoining coastal areas, with particular reference to their use for navigation.

hydrology
Scientific study of the waters of the Earth, especially with relation to the effects of precipitation and evaporation upon the occurrence and character of ground water.

hypsographic map
See: map, hypsographic

hypsography
Topography referred to the national geodetic vertical datum of 1929. The science or art of describing heights of land surfaces with reference to this datum.

hypsometric map
See: map, hypsometric

hypsometry
Science or art of determining terrain relief, by any method.

imagery
Visible representation of objects and (or) phenomena as sensed or detected by cameras, infrared and multispectral scanners, radar, and photometers. Recording may be on photographic emulsion (directly as in a camera or indirectly after being first recorded on magnetic tape as an electrical signal) or on magnetic tape for subsequent conversion and display on a cathode ray tube.

infrared scanner (thermal mapper)
Instrument that detects infrared radiation and converts the detected energy to an electrical signal for recording on photographic film or magnetic tape.

isogonic chart
Chart showing isogonic lines properly labeled with their magnetic declination.

isogonic line
Line joining points on the Earth's surface having equal magnetic declination as of a given date.

isopleth map
See: map, isopleth

Kelsh plotter
Double-projection plotting instrument utilizing swinging lamps to transmit light through contact- size diapositives (positive transparencies).

land use classification system
Coding system of categories and subcategories designed for use on a map to designate land or water use.

land use map
See: map, land use

landmark
Monument of material mark or fixed object used to designate a land boundary on the ground: any prominent object on land that may be used to determine a location or a direction in navigation or surveying.

latitude
Angular distance, in degrees, minutes, and seconds of a point north or south of the Equator.

lead line
Line weighted with lead for making depth soundings in water.

levee
Artificial bank confining a stream channel or limiting adjacent areas subject to flooding; an embankment bordering a submarine canyon or channel, usually occurring along the outer edge of a curve.

level surface
Surface which at every point is perpendicular to the plumbline or the direction in which gravity acts.

leveling
Surveying operation in which heights of objects and points are determined relative to a specified datum.
line copy (line drawing) Map copy suitable for reproduction without the use of a screen; a drawing composed of lines as distinguished from continuous- tone copy.

line map
See: map, line

longitude
Angular distance, in degrees, minutes, and seconds, of a point east or west of the Greenwich meridian.

low water:
Minimum height reached by a falling tide. The height may be due solely to the periodic tidal forces or it may have superimposed upon it the effects of meteorological conditions.

low water line
Intersection of the land with the water surface at an elevation of low water. Not to be confused with mean low water line.

Arkkeeper
05-28-2008, 02:16 PM
magnetic declination
See: declination

map
Graphic representation of the physical features (natural, artificial, or both) of a part or the whole of the Earth's surface, by means of signs and symbols or photographic imagery, at an established scale, on a specified projection, and with the means of orientation indicated.

map, base
Map on which information may be placed for purposes of comparison or geographical correlation. The term "base map" was at one time applied to a class of maps now known as outline maps. It may be applied to topographic maps, also termed "mother maps" that are used in the construction of other types of maps by the addition of particular data.

map, bathymetric
Maps delineating the form of the bottom of a body of water, or a portion thereof, by the use of depth contours (isobaths).

map, cadastral
Map showing the boundaries of subdivisions of land, often with the bearings and lengths thereof and the areas of individual tracts, for purposes of describing and recording ownership. It may also show culture, drainage, and other features relating to land use and value. See:plat

map, choropleth
Thematic map in which areas are colored, shaded, dotted, or hatched to create darker or lighter areas in proportion to the density of distribution of the theme subject.

map digitization
Conversion of map data from graphic to digital form.

map, engineering
Map showing information that is essential for planning an engineering project or development and for estimating its cost. It usually is a large-scale map of a small area or of a route. It may be entirely the product of an engineering survey, or reliable information may be collected from various sources for the purpose, and assembled on a base map.

map, flood control
Map designed for studying and planning control projects in areas subject to flooding.

map, forestry
Map prepared principally to show the size, density, kind, and value of trees in a designated area.

map, geologic
Map showing the structure and composition of geologic features.

map hypsographic
Map showing relief with elevations referred to the national geodetic vertical datum of 1929.

map, hypsometric
Map showing relief by any convention, such as contours, hachures, shading, or tinting.

map, isopleth
Map consisting of lines connecting places of equal value of distribution for a given theme such as rainfall or temperature.

map, land use
Map showing by means of a coding system the various purposes for which parcels of land are being used by man.

map, line
Map composed of lines as distinguished from photographic imagery.

map, orthophotographic
See: orthophotographic map

map, photographic
See: photomap

map, planimetric
Map that presents only the horizontal positions for features represented. distinguished from a topographic map by the omission of relief in measurable form. The features usually shown on a planimetric map include rivers, lakes, and seas; mountains, valleys, and plains; forests, and prairies; cities, farms transportation routes, and public utility facilities; and political and private boundary lines. A planimetric map intended for special use may present only those features essential to the purpose to be served.

map projection
Orderly system of lines on a plane representing a corresponding system of imaginary lines on an adopted terrestrial or celestial datum surface. Also, the mathematical concept for such a system. For maps of the Earth, a projection consists of 1) a graticule of lines representing parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude or 2) a grid.

map series
Family of maps conforming generally to the same specifications and designed to cover an area or a country in systematic pattern.

map, slope (clinometric map)
Map showing the degree of steepness of the Earth's surface by the use of various colors or shading for critical ranges of slope.

map, soil
Map that shows the constitution, structure, and texture of the soil and identifies ongoing erosion.

map, storm evacuation
Map designed to identify coastal areas subject to flooding, to indicate recommended areas of refuge, and to emphasize available evacuation routes.

map, thematic
Map designed to provide information on a single topic, such as geology, rainfall, population.

map, topographic
Map that present the horizontal and vertical positions of the features represented; distinguished from a planimetric map by the addition of relief in measurable form.

marsh, coastal
Area of salt-tolerant vegetation in brackish and (or) saline-water habitants subject to tidal inundation.

marsh, freshwater
Tract of low wet ground, usually miry and covered with rank vegetation.

mean high water
Tidal datum that is the arithmetic mean of the high water heights observed over a specific 19-year Metonic cycle (National Tidal Datum Epoch). For stations with shorter series, simultaneous observations are made with a primary control tide station to derive the equivalent of a 19-year value. Use of "mean high tide" is discouraged.

mean high water line
Intersection of the land with the water surface at the elevation of high water. See: shoreline

mean low water
Tidal datum that is the arithmetic mean of the low water heights observed over a specific 19-year Metonic cycle (National Tidal Datum Epoch). For stations with shorter series, simultaneous observations are made with a primary control tide station to derive the equivalent of a 19-year value. Use of "mean low tide" is discouraged.

mean low water line
Intersection of the land with the water surface at the elevation of low water.

mean sea level
Tidal datum that is the arithmetic mean of the hourly water elevations observed over a specific 19-year Metonic cycle (National Tidal Datum Epoch). Shorter series are specified in the name; that is, monthly mean sea level and yearly mean sea level. See: datum

meander line
Metes-and-bounds traverse approximately along the mean high water line of a permanent body of water. By following the sinuosities of the bank or shoreline, the meander line provides data for computing the area of land remaining after the water area has been segregated. A meander line differs from other metes and bounds surveys in that it does not ordinarily determine or fix boundaries.

meanderable
Capable of being depicted by reference to a meander line.

meridian
Great circle on the surface of the Earth passing through the geographical poles and any given point on the Earth's surface. All points on a given meridian have the same longitude.

metes and bounds
Method of describing land by measure of length (metes) of the boundary lines (bounds).

Metonic cycle
Period of 235 lunations or about 19 years. devised by Meton, an Athenian astronomer (5th century B.C.) for the purpose of obtaining a period at the end of which the phases of the moon recur in the same order and on the same days as in the preceding cycle.

metric system
Decimal system of weights and measures based on the meter as a unit length and the kilogram as a unit mass.

monoscopic
Pertaining to the observation of a single photograph or other view.

monument (surveying)
Permanent physical structure marking the location of a survey point. Common types of monuments are inscribed metal tablets set in concrete posts; and metal rods driven in the ground.

mosaic, aerial
Assembly of aerial photographs whose edges usually have been torn or cut selectively and matched to the imagery on adjoining photographs to form a continuous representation of a portion of the Earth's surface.

multiplex
Stereoplotter of the double-projection type characterized by its use of reduced- scale diapositives and stationary lamphouses with condensing lenses.

multispectral scanner (MSS)
Device for sensing radian energy in several channels of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Arkkeeper
05-28-2008, 02:18 PM
national geodetic vertical datum of 1929
Reference surface established by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey in 1929 as the datum to which relief features and elevation data are referenced in the conterminous United States; formerly called "mean sea level 1929."

National Map Accuracy Standards
Specifications promulgated by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget to govern accuracy of topographic and other maps produced by Federal Agencies.


navigable waters
Water usable, with or without improvements, as routes for commerce in the customary means of travel on water.

neatline
Line separating the body of a map from the map margin. On a standard quadrangle map, the neatlines are the meridians and parallels delimiting the quadrangle.

oceanic survey
Survey or examination of condition in the ocean or any part of it, with reference to animal or plant life, chemical elements present, temperature gradients, etc. See: hydrographic survey

offshore
Comparatively flat zone of variable width that extends from the outer margin of the rather steeply sloping shoreface to the edge of the continental shelf.

orientation
Establishing correct relationship in direction with reference to points of the compass; the state of being in correct relationship in direction with reference to the points of the compass.

origin of coordinates
Point in a system of coordinates that serves as a zero point in computing the system's elements or in prescribing its use.

orthophotograph
Photograph having the properties of an orthographic projection. It is derived from a conventional perspective photograph by simple or differential rectification so that image displacements caused by camera tilt and terrain relief are removed.

orthophotographic map
Map produced by assembling orthophotographs at a specified uniform scale in a map format.

orthophotomap
Orthophotographic map with contours and cartographic treatment, presented in a standard format, and related to standard reference systems.

orthophotoquad
Monocolor orthophotgraphic map presented in a standard quadrangle format and related to standard reference systems. It has no contours and little or cartographic treatment.

orthophotoscope
Photomechanical device used in conjunction with a double-projection stereoplotter for producing orthophotograph.

overedge
Any portion of a map lying outside the nominal map border (neatline).

overlay
Printing or drawing on a transparent or translucent medium intended to be placed in register on a map or other graphic and which shows details not appearing or requiring special emphasis on the base material.

overprint
New material printed on a map or chart to show data of importance or special use, in addition to those data originally printed.


parallel of latitude
A circle, or approximation of a circle, on the surface of the Earth, parallel tot he Equator, and connecting points of equal latitude; a circle of the celestial sphere parallel to the ecliptic, and connecting points of equal celestial latitude.

photogrammetry
Science or art of obtaining reliable measurements or information from photographs or other sensing systems.

photomap (photographic map)
Map made by adding marginal information, descriptive data, and a reference system to a photograph or assembly of photographs.

plain
Region of uniform general slope, comparatively level, of considerable extent, and not broken by marked elevations and depressions (it may be an extensive valley floor or a plateau summit); an extent of level or nearly level land; a flat, gently sloping, or nearly level region of the sea floor.

planetable
Instrument consisting essentially of a drawing board on a tripod and some type of sighting device (alidade) with attached straightedge, used for plotting the lines of survey directly from observation in the field.

planimetric map
See: map, planimetric

planimetry
Plan details of a map - those having no indication of relief or contour.

plat
Diagram drawn to scale showing all essential data pertaining to the boundaries and subdivisions of a tract of land, as determined by survey or protraction. As used by the Bureau of Land Management, the drawing which represents the particular area included in a survey, such as township, private land claim, or mineral claim, and the lines surveyed, established, or retraced, showing the direction and length of each such line; The relation to the adjoining official surveys; the boundaries, descriptions, and area of each parcel of land subdivided; and, as nearly as may be practicable, a representation of the relief and improvements within the limits of the survey.

prime meridian
Meridian of longitude 0 degrees, used as the origin for measurements of longitude. The meridian of Greenwich, England, is the internationally accepted prime meridian on most charts. However, local or national prime meridians are occasionally used.

projection, map
See: map, projection

public land system
Public lands are subdivided by a rectangular system of surveys established and regulated by the Bureau of Land Management. The standard format for subdivision is by townshipsmeasuring 6 miles (480 chains) on a side. Townships are further subdivided into 36 numbered sections of 1 square mile (640 acres) each.

quad-centered photograph
Middle exposure of a phototriplet (three consecutive aerial photographs) take so that the middle photograph is exposed directly above the center of the quadrangle and the preceding and following photographs are exposed directly above the boundaries of the quadrangle. The flying height is set such that the quad-centered photograph covers the entire quadrangle.

quadrangle
Four-sided area, bounded by parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude used as an area unit in mapping (dimensions are not necessarily the same in both directions). Also, a geometric figure of significance in geodetic surveying.

Arkkeeper
05-28-2008, 02:20 PM
radial-line plotting
Determination of the location of points by the successive intersection and resection of direction lines radiating from the radial centers of overlapping aerial photographs.

rectification, differential
The process of scanning and reprojecting a photograph onto a horizontal plane in differential elements to remove displacements caused by tilt and relief. The process may be accomplished by any one of a number of instruments developed specifically for the purpose.

rectification, simple
Projection of an aerial photograph (mathematically, graphically, or photographically) from its plane onto a horizontal plane by translation, rotation, and (or) scale change to remove displacement due to tilt of the camera.

relief
Elevations and depressions of the land or sea bottom.

relief shading
Technique for making hypsography on a map appear three dimensional by the use of graded shadow effects. Generally, the features are shaded as though illuminated from the northwest.

remote sensing
Process of detecting and (or) monitoring chemical or physical properties of an area by measuring its reflected and emitted radiation.

representational fraction
Scale of a map or chart expressed as a fraction or ratio that relates unit distance on the map to distance measured in the same unit on the ground.

reproduction
Summation of all processes involved in printing copies from an original drawing. A printed copy of an original drawing made by the processes of reproduction

scale
Relationship existing between a distance on a map, chart, or photograph and the corresponding distance on the Earth.

sea level (water level)
Height of the surface of the sea at any given time.

section
Unit of subdivision of a township; normally a quadrangle 1 mile square with boundaries conforming to meridians and parallels within established limits, and containing 640 acres as nearly as practicable.

sensor
Technical means, usually electronic, to extend man's natural senses by detecting emitted or reflected energy. The energy may be nuclear, electromagnetic (including the visible and invisible portions of the spectrum), chemical, biological, thermal, or mechanical

shoreline
Intersection of the land with the water surface.

slope map
See: map, slope

soil map
See: map, soil

spheroid
Mathematical figure closely approaching the geoid in form and size and used as a surface of reference for geodetic surveys. A reference spheroid or ellipsoid is a spheroid determined by revolving an ellipse about its shorter (polar) axis and used as a base for geodetic surveys of a large section of the Earth (such as the Clarke spheroid of 1866 which is used for geodetic surveys in the United States).

spot elevation
Point on a map or chart whose height above a specified datum is noted, usually by a dot or a small sawbuck and elevation value. Elevations are shown, on a selective basis, for road forks and intersections, grade crossings summit of hills, mountain

stadia
Technique of distance measurement wherein the observer reads the intercept subtended on a graduated rod between two marks on the reticle of the telescope.

standard-accuracy adjustment
See: adjustment, standard-accuracy

state plane coordinate system
Coordinate systems established by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey (now the National Ocean Survey), usually one for each state, for use in defining positions of points in terms of plane rectangular (x,y) coordinates.

stereocompilation
Production of a map or chart manuscript from aerial photographs and geodetic control data by means of photogrammetric instruments.

stereoplotter
Instrument for plotting a map by observation of stereomodels formed by pairs of photographs.

stereoscopic
Pertaining to the use of binocular vision for observation of a pair of overlapping photographs or other perspective views, giving impression of depth.

storm evacuation map
See: map, storm evacuation

subsidence
Decrease in the elevation of land surface due to tectonic, seismic, or artificial forces, without removal of surface material.

survey
Orderly process of determining data relating to any physical or chemical characteristics of the Earth. The associated data obtained in a survey. An organization engaged in making a survey.

tacheometer (tachymeter)
Surveying instrument designed for use in the rapid determination of distance, direction, and difference of elevation from a single observation, using a short base which may be an intergraph part of the instrument.

thematic map
See: map, thematic

theodolite
Precision surveying instrument for measuring horizontal and vertical angles.

tide
Periodic rise and fall of the water resulting from gravitational interactions between the Sun, Moon, and Earth. The vertical component of the particulate motion of a tidal wave. Although the accompanying horizontal movement of the water is part of the same phenomenon, it is preferable to designate this motion as tidal current.

topographic map
See: map, topographic

topography
Configuration (relief) of the land surface; the graphic delineation or portrayal of that configuration in map form, as by contour lines; in oceanography the term is applied to a surface such as the sea bottom or surface of given characteristics within the water mass.

township
Unit of survey of the public lands of the United States, normally a quadrangle approximately 6 miles on a side with boundaries conforming to meridians and parallels within established limits, containing 36 sections. Also, in minor governmental subdivision.

transit
Precision surveying instrument; a theodolite in which the telescope can be reversed in direction by rotation about its horizontal axis.

traverse
Sequence of lengths and directions of lines connecting a series of stations, obtained from field measurements, and used in determining positions of the stations.

triangulation
Method of extending horizontal position on the surface of the Earth by measuring the angles of triangles and the included sides of selected triangles.

trilateration
Method of surveying wherein the lengths of the triangle sides are measured, usually by electronic methods, and the angles are computed from the measured lengths. Compare with triangulation.

Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) grid
Military grid system based on the transverse Mercator projection, applied to maps of the Earth's surface extending from the Equator to 84 Degrees north and 80 degrees south latitudes

upland
Highland; ground elevation above the lowlands along rivers or between hills.

zenith telescope
Instrument for observing starts near the zenith (a point on the celestial sphere directly above the observer's position). ground below the water table where all the pores in rock, sediment, and soil are filled with water

Arkkeeper
05-28-2008, 02:21 PM
WHEEWW thats everything, I hope it wasn't too much.

rpgmapmaker
05-28-2008, 04:26 PM
Information overload!!!

Looks like you have the energy to make Wiki entries or write a book ;) ... just out of curiosity where did you get the list?

I am "assuming" that you copied and pasted this from somewhere... if so, it might be a better idea to just give a link for this type of resource next time... not to be hard on you as this is a great... great... list :D

-Chris

Arkkeeper
05-28-2008, 05:47 PM
YAY! for minute I thought I was going to get scolded and all that. Yeah the thought of a link just didn't occur then, I did it all in the heat of the moment so to speak. I haven't even read it all but I should, anywhos here's the link: Clicky (http://www.worldatlas.com/mapterms.htm)

It's a site called WorldAtlas.com

Karro
05-30-2008, 01:37 PM
Latitude: Distance Measuring lines going North and South

Longitude: Distance Measuring lines going East and West "Remember when a map has North up, The Longitude lines are long



These appear a bit confusing by these descriptions. Of course we all know what Latitude and Longitude are. For clarification:

Longitude: Lines of Longitude are drawn from the North Pole to the South Pole, and are arranged heading from east to west. Lines of Longitude are also sometimes referred to as Meridians. All lines of Longitude meet at the North and South Poles (though on some map projections they all appear to be parallel and usually equidistant throughout).

Latitude: Lines of Latitude run perpendicular to a north-oriented map, running from west to east. They are parallel lines based on the arc angle from the equator, and measure distance from the equator. Also, in primary school, you may have been taught to associate LATitude with FATitude to remind you of their orientation, or at least I was.

Arkkeeper
05-30-2008, 03:20 PM
Yeah that was just my stupid definitions and I qouted the Meme wrong, When North is up Longitude is long and Latitude is laying down.

Midgardsormr
07-14-2008, 05:46 PM
Recto: The front side of a page.

Verso: The back side of a page.

Age-toning: A descriptive word for areas of discoloration or browning that have appeared on old maps over the years. Generally from improper storage and handling.

Blue-Back chart: A method used by private publishers in London during the 19th century to distinguish them from the official Admiralty charts. The name came from the heavy blue paper backing used by publishers to strengthen the charts. The blue-backing was also used by American chartmakers Edmund Blunt and George Eldridge in the late 19th/early 20th century.

from http://www.gracegalleries.com/Glossary_of_Map_Terms.htm

cyfir
05-01-2009, 04:45 PM
Gebirge - (German) mountains, mountain range
Erg - (Arabic) dune, sandy desert
Hamada - (Arabic) rocky plateau
Chott - (Arabic) salt lake
Djebel - (Arabic) mountain
Nahr - (Arabic) river
Oued - (Arabic) river
Sahara - (Arabic) desert, plain
Sebkha - (Arabic) salt marsh

There's a start.

Some more Arabic topographical terms:
Buhiyra - Lake (Generally freshwater)
Bahr - Sea
Tal - Hill
Khalij - Gulf
Qanat - Canal

Administrative Terms:
Wilayat - State or Province
Balad - Region or County
Medina - City
Ruba' - Quarter (as in "foreign quarter")
Hayy - District

Those are just off the top of my head; if you have specific terms you'd like for a middle-eastern-themed map let me know.

ravells
05-01-2009, 04:51 PM
That is wonderful. I'd love to see cartographic terms in different languages.

Ascension
05-01-2009, 04:57 PM
Yep, agreed. It really helps to give some flavor to a map when you can do the labels in different languages.

Midgardsormr
05-02-2009, 09:49 AM
Those are just off the top of my head; if you have specific terms you'd like for a middle-eastern-themed map let me know.

How about the cardinal directions? (North, South, East, West)
Fort or fortress
Forest
Road

cyfir
05-06-2009, 01:20 AM
How about the cardinal directions? (North, South, East, West)
Fort or fortress
Forest
Road

North - Shamaal
South - Janub
East - Sharq
West - Gharib

Fort (as in military installation) - Mu'askr
Fortress (as in castle/fortification) - Qala'
Forest - Ghaba
Road - Tariq

Midgardsormr
05-06-2009, 11:32 AM
Fabulous! Thanks for that, and have some rep!

PixelFish
05-23-2009, 02:39 PM
Honestly, this is more the kind of thing I was hoping to find in this thread. I'd also like to find more foreign terms with definitions, such as gebirge, erg, wadi, etc...

I learned 'erg' and 'qanat' from Dune incidentally. (Which has a map (http://www.geocities.com/SouthBeach/Sands/4535/dmap.jpg) at the end, and I think it's one of the more confusing maps I've seen in a book. When I was a kid, I kept trying to parse the round outline as the shape of the planet. Eventually I figured it out but the legend didn't really clear things up for me.)


Types of settlements: (Most of this will be obvious, but may help in determining your dot and font sizes and derivations for naming schemes should you decide to conlang)

Megalopolis - clusters of very large cities. Real world examples include such megacities as the Bay Area (SF and the surrounding cities such as San Jose, Oakland, Marin) and BosWash (the Boston to Washington DC corridor). They are usually so designated because there is such population density between these cities that they could be seen as one continuous human settlement. Not often found in fantasy environs, but certainly seen all over science fiction.)
City - a large urban settlement, usually distinguished by size, (although in medieval times, you often needed a major structure like a palace or cathedral to be considered part of a city) and clustered about with suburbs or townships. Common real world suffixes = -Stat, -stadt, (Swedish, German) -ville (French) and citta (Italian) and -polis (greek)
Town - smaller than a city, bigger than a village -ton, -taun, -tun, -town -stadt (again, because these are interchangeable in German) Sometimes referred to as townships, but depending on state and province, sometimes townships are smaller than towns. Towns still retain most of the urban traits of cities re: food production and population clustering.
Burgh - districts inside cities that sometimes become independent, see also Burrough, Boro, (Sometimes confused with the Germanic -berg which means mountain or the other -burg which means castle, as in Hamburg)
Village -smaller than town, bigger than a hamlet. We're starting to get back to agrarian communities, and villages are more likely to practise their own food production. Historically villages might have a church, but not a town hall or the larger apparatus of government. -by is a very common suffix for villages and seems to derive from the Scandanavian countries, but is seen in English speaking areas as well. (Scoresby, Maltby, etc)
Hamlet - smaller than a village. -ham, -heim, -holm, -home (The word is derived from "home" and its variants. However, tiny hamlets can grow and become big cities, which is why you see some cities with -holm suffix)

Church territorial units: Often times religious organisations had their own cities (like the Vatican) or ways of dividing up the countryside, should they have enough power. Parishes and tithings are other smaller divisions commonly known as church territories.

Wordman
05-26-2009, 02:31 PM
My fourth grade social studies book had this page with a drawing of a fictional landscape that illustrate the various types of geographical features, with definitions below. It's where I learned the difference between an "isthmus" and an "archipelago". It was one of the more concise visualizations of data I've ever seen. Unfortunately, I can't find a copy of it on line.

I did find this visual geographical glossary (http://www.enchantedlearning.com/geography/glossary/), though.

Ascension
05-26-2009, 04:42 PM
Great find there Wordman, added it to my bookmarks...we should find a way to sticky that somehow.

Midgardsormr
12-31-2009, 11:29 AM
Some crosslinking to other threads and resources of interest to anyone searching for toponymy information:

What's in a Name? Place Names: Topographic Names (http://www.askoxford.com/worldofwords/name/placenames/topographic/?view=uk), Ask Oxford's article on British topographical language.

Place Name Conventions (http://www.cartographersguild.com/showthread.php?t=5693) (local thread)

Hand Drawn Maps Tips (http://www.cartographersguild.com/showthread.php?p=9546) (local thread)

Less Common Topographical Terms (http://www.cartographersguild.com/showthread.php?p=95071#post95071) (local thread)

mearrin69
01-01-2010, 01:35 PM
Never noticed this thread before. Good stuff here. I especially appreciate the terms in other languages...so, I will contribute a few in Chinese Mandarin. Anybody that speaks Chinese well is welcome to correct me. :)

North - Bei (like bay in English) 北
East - Dong (with long o) 东
South - Nan (like Han Solo) 南
West - Xi (like she) 西

Capital - Jing (like wing) 京 - use at the end of a name, e.g. Beijing (northern capital), Dongjing (Tokyo, eastern capital), Nanjing (southern capital).
Capital - Shoudu (show doo) 首 都
Province - Sheng 省
City - Shi (like sure) 市
City - Chengshi 城 市
Road - Lu (like Lou Grant) 路


Sea - Hai (like hi) or Hai Yang 海 洋
River - He (huh) 河
Lake - Hu (like who) 湖
Mountain - Shan (like Shawn said with a Baaastan accent) 山
Forest - Lin (like Lynne) 林


Sorry for the silly pronunciation guides...I'm not educated on any official systems for conveying pronunciation! :)
M

Carnifex
01-22-2010, 06:05 PM
Found this awesome list:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_landforms

Great for map ideas.

Korash
01-23-2010, 12:01 PM
Very nice find Carnifex! :D Why didn't I think of doing that?

Thanks and repped!!

jbgibson
03-07-2010, 01:14 AM
What I really wish we had, is a good multilingual glossary of carto terms. Maybe we have one, only I'm searching wrong. Not the ones about maps (neatline, compass, altitude key) but the geographical terms on maps (lake, hills, desert). If anyone knows of such, let's link to it. If not, we can create one, here... or once it's started, in Wikipedia or the Wikitionary... the better to get lots of input :-).

Lots of world atlases have such a thing as this Glossary of Foreign Geographical Terms (http://www.uwec.edu/kaldjian/1Courses/GEOG319/319links/foreigngeogterms.pdf). OK, that serves when you're figuring out the labels on existing other-language maps. We need the other direction, like when we're making a part of our world have consistent names that sound like Spanish, or like Russian, or whatever.

Above is noted Wikipedia's delightful List of Landforms (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_landforms). That's in English - I assume other-language views of Wikipedia may have the same, but if I could speak language "X" well enough to use its Wikipedia, I probably wouldn't need to :-). But at least it's a good list of the sort of geographic terms we could start with. Lacking are cultural features (town, wall, bridge).

If you delve into the Wikitionary (http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Wiktionary:Main_Page), you can get what I'm talking about... but just one word at a time. Take the English word mountain (http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/mountain) -- on that Wikitionary page you can swap into any of the list of languages in the lower left column. Cumbersome. Though one nice thing about some of the Wikitionary pages is they'll have audio files so you can hear the words. I don't read cuneiform or cyrillic, so my "sort of like" versions of those language labels are going to be strictly "sounds like" transliterations.

These two (http://ss.wiktionary.org/wiki/Help:Multilingual_word_list) ... different examples (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_numbers_in_various_languages) illustrate more what I'm after. Neither seems really suited for what could easily be a matrix of a hundred terms by a hundred languages (hey, I can dream, can't I?) I know some of the newer Wikipedia table forms are sortable six ways from Sunday; maybe that's the trick. Or maybe it's a database with flexible reporting I'm thinking of. The output I think we want is like some comparisons of products in online catalogs - out of many different products (languages) pick just a few manufacturers (English, Czech, Slovak, and Hungarian instead of Ford, Toyota, Fiat) and then show the whole list with just those columns. After all if I'm trying to give the nation I'm labeling an eastern-European flavor, I don't need to see Cherokee and Chinese next to Czech.

The terms I want are not only to plausibly label, say, a mountain range, but also to form geo-based "proper names" of towns, lakes, whatever. Think how many towns at river crossings have -ford built into the name, or -bridge. Likewise Whatever-port, West-whichever, Lower Someburg. I'll still have to hunt up bilingual dictionaries to get the more random name-fragments I want - "Pont-des-<quick what's the French word for gazelles or whatever :-) >"

Does that make sense? Is there already some such resource tucked away in a corner of the Guild that I haven't found?

ravells
03-07-2010, 05:50 AM
This would work really well with Alfar's wordbuilder program....thanks for posting it! I'm afraid I think this thread pretty much has all the cartographic terminology we have found..

Carnifex
03-07-2010, 05:31 PM
Village -smaller than town, bigger than a hamlet. We're starting to get back to agrarian communities, and villages are more likely to practise their own food production. Historically villages might have a church, but not a town hall or the larger apparatus of government. -by is a very common suffix for villages and seems to derive from the Scandanavian countries, but is seen in English speaking areas as well. (Scoresby, Maltby, etc)

Many geographical names in the English midlands comes from the vikings/norsemen - including the -by suffix in England. A fun fact is that many streets in the midlands/northern England are calles "gates" - from the scandinavian word for street: gata/gate. According to wikipedia: "Around 600 English words we speak today come from old Norse for example ‘ill’ ‘egg’ ‘die ‘knife’ and ‘take.’".

rdanhenry
03-07-2010, 10:26 PM
These two (http://ss.wiktionary.org/wiki/Help:Multilingual_word_list) ... different examples (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_numbers_in_various_languages) illustrate more what I'm after. Neither seems really suited for what could easily be a matrix of a hundred terms by a hundred languages (hey, I can dream, can't I?) I know some of the newer Wikipedia table forms are sortable six ways from Sunday; maybe that's the trick. Or maybe it's a database with flexible reporting I'm thinking of. The output I think we want is like some comparisons of products in online catalogs - out of many different products (languages) pick just a few manufacturers (English, Czech, Slovak, and Hungarian instead of Ford, Toyota, Fiat) and then show the whole list with just those columns. After all if I'm trying to give the nation I'm labeling an eastern-European flavor, I don't need to see Cherokee and Chinese next to Czech.

The terms I want are not only to plausibly label, say, a mountain range, but also to form geo-based "proper names" of towns, lakes, whatever. Think how many towns at river crossings have -ford built into the name, or -bridge. Likewise Whatever-port, West-whichever, Lower Someburg. I'll still have to hunt up bilingual dictionaries to get the more random name-fragments I want - "Pont-des-<quick what's the French word for gazelles or whatever :-) >"


Looks like a job for a spread sheet. And someone with a lot of time to dig up the information and enter it.

RobA
03-08-2010, 10:25 PM
Looks like a job for a spread sheet. And someone with a lot of time to dig up the information and enter it.

Or mind mapping software?

-Rob A>

Carnifex
03-12-2010, 04:28 PM
Looks like a job for a spread sheet. And someone with a lot of time to dig up the information and enter it.

That's exactly as I have made my Excel-document. Soon to be released....

Midgardsormr
03-12-2010, 09:29 PM
Maledictus has very kindly posted this list of Aztec toponyms:

http://www.cartographersguild.com/showthread.php?9613-Aztec-naming-of-places

tilt
03-13-2010, 02:11 AM
great thread - lots of cool info here, thanks to all :)

Hai-Etlik
11-28-2011, 11:03 PM
A list of common terms and what they mean.


Aspect: The orientation of a projection. Cylindrical projections are "normal" if wrapped around the equator, "polar" if wrapped around the poles, or "oblique" otherwise. Azimuthal projections are "polar" if centred on a pole, or "equatorial" if centred on the equator, and are often centred at other points as well. Conics are almost always "normal" which means they have their "point" along the Earth's axis.

Azimuthal: A projection where the map is notionally flat and touches the Earth at a point. In a polar aspect the meridians are an evenly spaced full circle about the pole with the parallels circles centred on the pole and possibly evenly spaced or not. In equatorial aspects the meridians are curves from pole to pole, and the parallels are curves that are 'open' toward the nearer pole.

Axis: The line through the Earth about which it rotates.

Bearing: A compass direction. This is distorted by all projections except Normal Mercator.

Chart: A map designed for navigation, particularly by sea or air.

Conformal: A property of projections. A conformal projection preserves angles. If two lines meat at 45 degrees, then they will still meet at 45 degrees in the map. In a rough sense you can think of conformal maps as preserving shapes, though that's not quite right.

Conic: A projection where the map is notionally wrapped around the Earth to form a cone. The graticule of normal conic projections has the meridians as evenly spaced straight lines radiating from a point in a fan shape, and the parallels as circular arcs centred at that same point and may or may not be evenly spaced depending on the particular projection.

Coordinate System: A way of representing positions with numbers. Latitude and longitude is the best known, although there are others including UTM/UPS, and Geocentric.

Cylindrical: A projection where the map is notionally wrapped around the Earth to form a cylinder. The graticule of normal cylindrical projections consists of a rectangular grid with the meridians evenly spaced. The parallels may or may not be evenly spaced and may or may not be evenly spaced depending on the particular projection.

Ellipsoid: A squashed/stretched sphere. If it is only squashed or stretched in one direction, it is called a spheroid, and an oblate (squashed) spheroid is the usual way of representing the geoid.

Equal Area: A property of projections. Shapes in an equal area map will have the same relative areas. If one island is twice as big as another, it will be twice as big in the map.

Equator: The great circle where the plane perpendicular to the axis and containing the centre of mass (The equatorial plane) intersects the surface.

Equidistant: A property of projections. An equidistant map preserves a certain class of distances. Typically it will preserve distances in a certain direction, or through a certain point.

Extent: The area covered by a map.

Feature: A thing to represent on a map. A town, road, mountain, battle, the projected range of an invasive toad species in 20 years.

Geoid: The true shape of the Earth. Formally, it's an "equipotential surface", which means that's it's defined so that if you dropped something down a hole to the Centre of the Earth from any point on the surface, it would have the same speed when it reached the bottom. Other ways of thinking of it are that if the entire geoid were solid, nothing would roll up or down on it, or if you eliminated all the land, and eliminated all the weather and tides, then the oceans would take the level of the geoid. Roughly it's a flattened sphere, but the 'fat' part is a bit off centre, and it's a bit lumpy.

Graticule: The grid indicating latitude and longitude, or sometimes other coordinate systems like UTM.

Great Circle: The equivalent of a "straight line" in spherical geometry. It is a circle defined by the intersection of a plane through the centre of the sphere and the surface of the sphere. Equivalently a plane through the centre of the earth intersects the geoid, or an ellipsoid, in what is generally called a "great circle" even if it's isn't strictly a circle. Strictly these are all "geodesics", but that term is less frequently used.

Latitude: The angle between a line straight 'down' from a given point on the surface, and the equatorial plane where they meet. Ideally, "down" is defined by the geoid, but in practice, an ellipsoid is used.

Legend: A description of a map's symbology, typically in the form of a table showing examples beside descriptions of what they represent.

Longitude: The angle between the plane defined by the axis and the given point, and the plane of the prime meridian.

Projection: A way of taking a position in 3 dimensions (Such as a point on the surface of the Earth) and representing it in 2 dimensions (such as a flat map.). Some information will always be lost or distorted as a result. In cartography, this is most often a matter of projecting the surface of the Earth onto a flat map, but occasionally other projections of general 3d space are used to represent relief, such as isometric and other axonometric projections.

Relief: The shape of the surface of the Earth, including all the bumps and holes.

Reference Map: A map designed to present a broad and general view for use in a wide range of situations. A typical wall map, the maps in atlases, or topographic maps are examples.

Rhumb Line: A curve along which bearing is constant. If you walk forward, following a particular bearing on a compass, you are walking a rhumb line. Unless you are walking straight north/south or along the equator, this is a spiral which gets tighter and tighter as you approach a pole. Also called a Loxodrome.

Scale: The ratio between how big features are represented on the map, and how big they really are. If a 1 km feature is drawn as 1 mm, then the scale is 1:1,000,000. Note that 1:1,000 (0.001) is much is a much larger number than 1:1,000,000 (0.000001) and so is a "larger scale". This means that maps with a large extent (Cover a large area) will usually have a small scale (Draw things small and with little detail), and vis versa.

Symbology: The way that you represent features in your map. Representing towns as red dots is an example of symbology.

Thematic Map: A map designed to present a specific set of data or to serve a specific role. Climate maps, weather maps, and population maps are good examples.

HBrown
04-29-2012, 08:46 PM
Many geographical names in the English midlands comes from the vikings/norsemen - including the -by suffix in England. A fun fact is that many streets in the midlands/northern England are calles "gates" - from the scandinavian word for street: gata/gate. According to wikipedia: "Around 600 English words we speak today come from old Norse for example ‘ill’ ‘egg’ ‘die ‘knife’ and ‘take.’".

Also of note in English town names: Any name ending in "wich" is a place where, back in the day, they made salt.

Vagabondage
07-26-2013, 08:46 AM
I was poking around some ancient maps for inspiration on style and I REALLY love aesthetic of these sun- compass-looking things in this map. (http://mapsys.info/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/OldMaps11.jpg) They look like they have some function of triangulation and since this appears to be a fragment of a much larger map, I can only assume that the other lines belong to other sun-compasses, but I have no idea what they're really called.

Anyone know or have any guesses?

ravells
07-26-2013, 11:36 AM
They are called Wind Roses, I think. The lines radiating from them are called Rhumb Lines.

Vagabondage
07-26-2013, 01:54 PM
Thank you very much! :D

Vagabondage
07-26-2013, 01:59 PM
but... I have to ask another question now... why are there so many?

Trying to utilize the internets, but I've stumbled upon no answers.

Midgardsormr
07-27-2013, 01:21 PM
The rhumb line is a line of constant bearing across the earth's surface, and it is an aid to navigation that permits navigation without complex tools or detailed knowledge. The locations of the roses are rallying points, which can be used as starting positions or waypoints along your route. Leave port, sail in a straight line until you reach the rallying point, then turn and sail in a straight line until you reach the next, then turn and sail in a straight line to your destination port. You can thus connect almost any two ports on this map using only two waypoints, and you don't have to risk your ship on the shoals by coasting.

Hai-Etlik
07-27-2013, 02:17 PM
It's important to realize that rhumb lines usually aren't straight (on the globe), any that aren't in the four cardinal directions are spirals. The meridians and the equator are both rhumb lines are great circles ("Straight lines" in spherical geometry) The other parallels are all regular circles. Maps that show rhumb lines are either large scale, so they only show a short section of the spiral that doesn't show much curvature, or they are in the Mercator projection, which distorts things to make rhumb lines appear straight.

Rhumb lines and compass/wind roses are indications that the map is bearing preserving, and tools to aid in taking advantage of that property for navigation. Rhumb lines are mostly associated with "Dead Reckoning" navigation.

Rhumb lines are often drawn in a web of sorts, centring a cluster of lines at each vertex of a regular polygon so that the lines intersect the other verticies. The map you've linked to is doing this although you can only see a portion of the whole pattern. The whole thing looks like this:

56443

Vagabondage
07-27-2013, 07:48 PM
@Midgardsormr & Hai-Etlik -- Thank you so much for your answers. This explains a lot and is absolutely fascinating/beautiful!

Would wind-roses function the same way over large areas of land?

Midgardsormr
07-28-2013, 01:30 PM
Theoretically yes, but dead reckoning navigation is a lot harder over land since the terrain rarely cooperates, even in grasslands. Not to mention those obnoxious farmers and their fences. It's usually much easier and faster to just follow the roads.

Sometimes you'll run across an overland map with rhumb lines, but in most of those cases, it's probably because the cartographer didn't actually know what the lines were for and thought they were merely a decorative device. I've even seen one example where someone added false (and incorrect) rhumb lines to an original Mercator.

Vagabondage
07-30-2013, 10:13 AM
I figured as much. They are REALLY NICE looking from an artistic standpoint but I can't imagine how absurdly idiotic they look when used incorrectly. :P

lastofthemany
07-30-2013, 11:51 PM
Here is a cartographic term that has been talked about extensively, but not necessarily defined. Generic. This refers to the descriptor attached to place names. Examples: In Rocky Mountains, the generic is "Mountains". In Rio Grande, it is Rio. "Rio" and "mountain" and "Wadi" and "erg" aren't really cartographic terms in themselves. I believe the US Board on Geographic Names has a list of generics used in the US. I'll see if Icahn track it down.

lastofthemany
07-31-2013, 12:04 AM
Couldn't find the link I was looking for but I found these which are kinda cool. I posted them here even though it relates more to "toponymy" ( the study of place names) than it does to Cartography.

List of generic forms in place names in the United Kingdom and Ireland - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_generic_forms_in_place_names_in_the_United _Kingdom_and_Ireland)

Generic terms – Antarctic Place-names Committee (http://new.antarctica.ac.uk/apc/proposals/generic-terms/)

I apologize if they have already been posted.

Scot Harvest
07-31-2013, 11:57 PM
I'm going to throw a few of these terms around at the next party I go to an see if it impresses anyone! lol