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delgondahntelius
09-27-2008, 05:13 AM
Pen & Ink
Basic Guidelines and Tips for hand drawn maps with pen, ink and paper.


This is by no means a definitive article on Pen and Ink drawing. I wanted to pass on some basic knowledge of my years of rendering maps in pen and ink, as well as pass on a few tips that might help some of you avoid the mistakes that Iíve made in the past. There are some things in this particular field that arenít easy to find and come through a process of trial and error. I would also like to point out that Iíve never had any formal training in art, architectural, drafting and design, or cartography. It has all been self-taught and I would never consider myself an expert by any definition of the word. In fact, every time I sit down to start a map, itís a learning experience and I look at it as such. The best advice I could probably every give you is this: Patience, Practice and Practice.
There are of course three essential tools in this trade: Pens, Inks, and Paper. There are other tools and supplies that are worth mentioning here. First and foremost are pencils. Every final map I draw has been outlined (lightly) in pencil; I prefer wooden Staedtler brand sketching and drafting pencils, I usually a light to medium grade (2B, B, HB, H 2H 3H). They are easily erased from most sheets with a gum eraser or a flexible, polymer eraser (soft white), once the ink has been laid down. Other supplies might include: compass, ruler, t-square, all manner of stencils for drafting and design, masking tape, pen knife or razor, soft brush, lint-free cloth, erasing shield, white out, scaling compass, drawing boards, thumb tacks, and Jolt cola (for those extended sessions).
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Pretty much everything I use for pen and ink artwork and cartography. Followed by some of the compass, eraser and pencils.


PENS

Felt-tip and fiber-tip pens I use the least, but the one of the handiest has been a brush pen. These are most commonly used for Asian character lettering, but I have found they can be used for more finesse where a quill pen cannot. Relatively cheap and fun to use I suggest at least one in every cartographerís arsenal. Most other felt-tips do not mesh well with the india ink weíll be using in our other pens.
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some felt pens there on the right.


Dip pens or quill pens do come in handy, especially when you need to build lines for mountains, or cliffs, or need varying width in your strokes. I love working with them personally, and have been using them in some form or another since age 10. Speedball makes a good quality and quantity of nibs at affordable prices. There tends to be a wide variance in user preference on which is used when doing various projects. I find that the most frequently used in my maps are the crow quill 107, 108 and 102, hunt 104, 107, 103, 99 and 512. Rotring makes a cartridge Ďquillí nib Art Pen in fine, medium and large sizes that come in handy, sadly the ink does have somewhat of an offset with india ink on certain sheets.
The drawback with most dip pens is you limited in stroke direction (meaning you turn your wrist and paper more) and they do have a tendency to drip or splatter if not careful. Having to re-dip the pen has a tendency to interrupt you rhythm. It also takes quite a bit of time gaining adeptness at using dip pens if youíve never really used them.
Cleaning quills are quite easy. I use rubbing alcohol to get the ink off and then wash the nibs in warm soapy water. I suggest not doing this over an open drain. Nibs can get slippery when wet and soapy. Rinse and let air dry or if you need to immediately reuse it, wipe it off with a lint-free cloth. A paper towel can be used if your careful not to get it torn and stuck in the ink chamber (the split in the nib).
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cont...

delgondahntelius
09-27-2008, 05:24 AM
Last, but certainly not least, are technical pens. My opinion is that this is the best instrument to ink with. The one downside to technical pens is the cost, they are probably the most expensive of all pens, and with this expense comes a bit more care and cleaning. I have also found that even the slightest type of abuse can damage a pen. Iím here to save you some money by giving you some helpful information on these pens. My favorite brand is Koh-I-Noor Rapidograph, it is dependable, refillable, and the best pens Iíve ever owned or used.
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There are disposable technical pens that are similar to regular technical pens. They differ in the way the inner workings are sealed and have no refillable cartridges. I found the Staedtler Mars professional to be a decent choice. I like that you can sketch fairly fast with these pens and the nib sizes are quite close to the Koh-I-Noor.
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Sketch pens and disposable technical pens.

The technical pen consists of a hollow metal nib, a refillable ink cartridge, and a plastic holder. The hollow nib contains a very delicate wire and weight which shifts back and forth bringing the ink supply forward as you move it across the page. NEVER, NEVER remove this wire from the nib. Doing so will have most likely rendered that nib completely useless.
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The sizes of nibs range from (largest to smallest) 7/2.00mm; 6/1.40mm; 4/1.20mm; 3Ĺ/1.00mm; 3/.80mm; 2Ĺ/.70mm; 2/.60mm; 1/.50mm; 0/.35mm; 00/.30mm; 3x0/.25mm; 4x0/.18mm; and 6x0/.13mm.

A 1 is about as big as I use for any map. I usually work with 0 or 00 for most everything, and use the 4x0 and 6x0 for very detailed work and thatching. The 6x0 and 4x0 are even more delicate than the other pens and care should be taken when using them. No extra jarring or dropping of the pen, donít tap them to try and restart an ink flow, or if you must a very, very light tap. When in doubt, just clean the pen and refill it.

The best way to start the pen is to hold it, nib upright, gently thump it to let excess air escape and then turn the pen nib down to let the ink flow to the nib. Technical pens are gravity fed, so hold the pen more upright than at an angle. Use a steady, light pressure and move across the surface in smooth strokes. Too much pressure will most likely stop ink flow and will pick up Ďfuzziesí from the (some) paper. DO NOT shake the pen, this will flood the air channel and create a vacuum that will prevent ink flow. Flooded pens must be cleaned. Always cap the pen when not in use, even if you stop inking for more than 15 or 20 seconds to take a drink of your Jolt. Some inks dry fast and can clog the nib.

You should probably clean your pen at least once a month and before storing it for more than a month. When you arenít actively using the pen, I always keep the pen strait up and down with the cap up. If you lay them down flat for any length of time, Iíve found they clog more frequently. If Iím storing the pen I do so unassembled from the pen holder, the body and nib still connected, usually in a small tin or in an empty pill bottle or film canister. I should also note that when you screw the pen together, barely hand tight is all that is necessary, that is to say, snug.

Disassemble the pen and remove the nib from the body of the pen. Again DO NOT REMOVE the wire from the nib. Rinse the nib, pen body and cartridge under running water. I use a small strainer to hold the pieces so I do not accidently drop them in the sink. You can use brand pen cleaning solutions, but I donít think itís necessary. I use a diluted solution of 1 part ammonia and 10 parts water, or 1 and 5 if a pen is really clogged or dirty. I do recommend a pressure cleaning syringe so you can thread the pen nib to and flush it out. I then finish with another straight water flush and then air dry.

While this was probably more than you ever needed to know about technical pens, I promise if you invest in them, this information is invaluable.

delgondahntelius
09-27-2008, 05:28 AM
Inks

I primarily ink my maps in black and white. I only use black India Ink and use either speedball brand for my dip pens and rapidograph brand for my technical pens. Past that, my knowledge on inks is limited. I almost always use something that is waterproof and when working with an open ink bottle, always keep it fixed to the table with some tape or other restraining device. Spilling ink all over what you are working on is no fun at all.
I actually bought a small deal of Crayola Model Magic which I molded into little holders for my ink bottles. The texture was perfect because even on my drafting table at an angle it doesn’t slide. I however, always stick tape underneath to ensure that it will not slide or move. I also molded a stand to keep my dip nibs in as well as one for holding pens and pen-holders.
My experience with colored inks is somewhat limited. Most every colored ink I’ve used for dip pens aren’t waterproof. I’m sure there are inks out there are. I know that there are colored inks for the rapidiograph pens that are waterproof. But as it depends on what kind of effect you want to end up with, such as ink washing.

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Paper

Paper comes in so many shapes and sizes. An absorbent paper with a firm polished texture provides the best surface for pen and ink. Your pen should glide over the paper without snagging or stuttering.
For finished works I like a Bristol board, because it’s smooth and allows you to draw in any direction without stubbing a rough place. It stays flat and doesn’t have a tendency to buckle unless vast amount of ink is applied.
For practice work and rough drafts, I use any old piece of paper I have handy. A sketch book is a good thing to have around as well. For most of my large maps I use a 24” x 18” sketch pad, Penciling in a rough draft, then doing a final rough before moving on to a my Bristol (and more expensive) board. As long as you keep a black and white final copy, most copy and print businesses can turn it into a digital PDF file or other popular formats (JPG, PSD, etc.) for a nominal fee.
When working with your final copy, it’s a good idea to keep either a set of light cotton gloves with the thumb, fore and middle fingers cut out, leaving the ring and pinky finger intact so that you do not leave oily or dirty stains from the natural oils your skin produces. It also helps prevent smudging and smearing if one is careful. You can use a lint free cloth wrapped around the edge of the hand to help if you don’t like cotton gloves. I like to use latex, powder free gloves; they fit skin tight so that it doesn’t feel like you’re out of contact with the work you are doing.

I hope that you found this article at least mildly useful. The art of Pen & Ink is a wide and versatile one that not even a whole book could cover all of it. The advice I give is mainly directed towards cartography and mapping; even then it only covers the technical aspect. Covering the artistic aspect of shapes, shading and thatching and the finer details of overland, buildings and cities is far too great of a subject to broach here. But to those who wish to take up this gratifying and fun media, I can only say practice, practice, practice, and practice.

I plan on continuing this by following up with techniques, tips and pointers on how to draw (specifically B&W) maps. This would be the tutorial part of the guide. So keep an eye open.

delgondahntelius
09-27-2008, 10:05 PM
This made it in the Alliance Zine for the Summer/Fall issue much to my surprise... and maybe I should have waited because it's put together much better than what I did here... you can get the zine here: http://www.cartographersguild.com/showthread.php?t=3018

ravells
09-27-2008, 10:42 PM
Lol! I thought I had a lot of pens!

Great article, Del! 5 stars from me!

mmmmmpig
09-28-2008, 12:35 AM
In would love for you to post some step by steps of your process. Do you plan everything out in pencil and then ink over it or do you do a loosey goosey pencil sketch and tighten it up with the inks? or are you a machine intent on overthrowing civilized society and do your work straight into the ink.

I haven't touched traditional tools for mapping in a long long time. This is a nice primer on ink tools.

delgondahntelius
09-28-2008, 03:13 AM
Lol! I thought I had a lot of pens!

Great article, Del! 5 stars from me!
Thanks for the stars and rep Rav, and yes, I do have quite a few pens and pencils. I find it frustrating if I don't have the type of medium I need for the effect I'm trying to achieve. So, like any good soldier, I keep a stockpile of ammunition around-- Just in case.


In would love for you to post some step by steps of your process. Do you plan everything out in pencil and then ink over it or do you do a loosey goosey pencil sketch and tighten it up with the inks? or are you a machine intent on overthrowing civilized society and do your work straight into the ink.

I haven't touched traditional tools for mapping in a long long time. This is a nice primer on ink tools.
That was my plan, to just basically give up some tips and tricks I find that work, take you step by step through 'my' process. The what works for me approach, because let's face it, everyone is different in how they accomplish what they need. I've gotten quite a bit of questions in the way of how and what about my maps/artwork that I felt it was time to put something out there. If someone gains the least bit of knowledge or skill from what I've learned... so much the better. When it comes to art I really don't think there is one 'true' process like you might find in following the steps someone gives you to achieve something in PS or Gimp. Sorry.. got off on a tangent there.

And no... its rare I just sit down and hit straight ink to paper (though the demon at the bottom of my Phenomedom Map (http://www.cartographersguild.com/showthread.php?t=2695) was actually done this way) I just make WAAAAY to many mistakes that I flat out don't trust my skills enough to produce something of quality from just sitting donw and inking it right there.... that and I really don't consider myself an artist... I can't draw any life type art, people animals or anything of that nature... not even if I had a piece of tracing paper over a picture... but ... if you want a sword or a map or maybe a logo drawn... then I can do it... but only after I've sat down and sketched out what i want ... (sometimes too many drafts) and then after I'm sure I've achieved what I'm looking for do I pick up ink.... and THEN ... I usually have at least one draft in ink .... before I do a final copy ....

Sad really... lol

Steel General
09-28-2008, 09:09 AM
I had no idea there was such a wide variety of ink pens out there. Great job Delgo!

That dadburn rep fairy is still being stingy else you would have gotten a good bonking for this.

Highlander
09-29-2008, 08:40 PM
I went through Amazon.com, pricing some stuff to get me started; figure it'll be about seventy or eighty dollars. Not really too bad, actually. And the drafting table I can make myself. :D

delgondahntelius
09-29-2008, 09:11 PM
Can't beat a drafting table, for sure. Mine comes in handy quite a bit, however, they don't hold bottles of open ink to well when you tilt them .... just be forewarned that open bottles will spill directly upside down and spill the entire contents ... :D

Highlander
09-29-2008, 09:26 PM
Can't beat a drafting table, for sure. Mine comes in handy quite a bit, however, they don't hold bottles of open ink to well when you tilt them .... just be forewarned that open bottles will spill directly upside down and spill the entire contents ... :D

Well, the one I had envisioned would sit directly atop my kitchen table; thus the ink could be put on the table, instead of the drafting table.

Also, out of curiosity, what is that bit of wood for, which is resting on your stencils?

delgondahntelius
09-29-2008, 10:45 PM
A book of sandpaper attached to a small handle, used for sharpening pencil points. Your softer xB type of pencils can get dull in a hurry, and that beats grabbing a sharpener every 4 minutes just to get a sharp(er) point. You should be able to pick one up in any art/hobby store. I've had it for years actually, sandpaper and lead go quite a long way, but I just some fine grain sandpaper and cut it in strips and twist tie them thru the paper onto the wood....

:D

delgondahntelius
09-30-2008, 08:49 PM
This starts the 'tutorial' part of the guide. I hate calling it a tutorial, because a tutorial gives you step by step process on how to achieve the look of an end product. When it comes to hand drawn maps with pen and paper, you can give step by step instructions, but you aren't guaranteed that the end product is going to look exactly like the tutorial. This is primarily based on one's artistic skill. I'm not an artist, though the term has been getting thrown at me quite a bit recently, and I'm slowly succumbing to the fact that, yes, I just might be. But I stress that this isn't a comprehensive guide, its not meant to be. All I can do is tell you what works for me, maybe some tips, some exercises to practice and techniques that I've learned. I'm always free to answer any questions you have, if I know them :D

My goal for this tutorial is to start out with some tips on pen and ink drawing. Explain what you can do between projects and give you an overall knowledge of what to expect out of pen and ink drawing.

Then I'll go into how I make a pen and ink map, from the begining until the end, and then explain on how to use digital products to enhance what you've drawn. Because I own Adobe Photoshop and Illustrator, these are what I'll be using in the finishing stages. I'm sure any number of programs can be used however like GIMP, Corel etc.

When someone mentions Pen and Ink, (I) you think black and white. But it does apply to color ink as well. I rarely use color ink however. So for the most part, this is for black and white drawing. I will (if time permits me) go into some coloring of B&W ink drawings in PS.

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Tips, thoughts, tricks, techniques, and stuff.
So, you got your pencils, your pens, your paper. Now what?
Draw.

"The doodler"
I attribute most (if any) of my skill at mapping to doodling. I constantly doodle. If a pen or pencil is in my hand and I'm not working on a specific project, I am doodling. Designs, lines, hatching, objects, scribbles, and just plain abstract stuff. So, I suggest if you want to have any skill at drawing professional pen and ink maps by hand, you should doodle. Sound crazy. It is!
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First, it gets you accustomed to your pens and how they feel on the paper and how they work on different grades of paper. If you've never used a technical pen, or have never used one on a consistent basis, you should know they do feel and operate differently than you normal ink pen. They require little pressure (for me this is something I still constantly have to consciously remind myself not to press down so hard), and you can't 'sketch' with them so to speak. The lines need to be drawn slower to prevent skipping.

It also lets you practice your technique for hatching, for making symbols such as trees and mountains. So doodle that... just make trees and mountains until you find something you like. You may discover your style this way, I know I did.

While you doodle, be sure to practice your hand position. Technical pens require you to hold the pen almost perpendicular to the surface you draw on. Practice keeping your lower hand off the paper and minimal contact with the drawing surface. INK STAYS WET, so be aware of what you've drawn so as not to smear it. This ruins a map pretty quick. Also, and this is a tip for beginners: QUIT moving your hand to such awkward positions! Move the paper! This really helps in working with lettering.

Switch between your technical pens and your dip pens. I never thought I would use my dip pens for mapping to the extent that I do now. Sometimes I use them MORE than I do my technical pens. If you are a beginner with dip pens, then be prepared for lots and lots of ink on your hands and finger tips. You will find however, the more you use them and gain skill, the less mess you will make. PRACTICE PRACTICE PRACTICE ... and always remember: PATIENCE. Inking is tedious, tiresome and sometimes boring work. So take breaks in between inking. And know that yes, your hands will hurt. At least, mine do.

"Techniques"
Always practice your techniques. Over and Over and Over.

Perfect Circles.
---The story goes that the pope sent people out to find artists and gather up examples of their skill in painting. When one asked the painter Giotto for an example, he took a brush and dipped it in red paint, then stood with one arm straight down to his side as if to make a compass, and with his other hand drew a freehanded perfect circle.---

Maybe you understand what this means, maybe you don't. I will say this, freehanded perfect circle drawing is quite possibly the hardest thing to do. So, that is one technique you should practice. I'm not an expert on freehand perfect circle drawing (google it and see what I mean). I don't know about straight hands on one side and all that. Take you paper and just draw circles, try to make them as perfect as possible. Small ones, medium ones and large ones. I happen to practice this one quite a bit, so you should too :D
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Line Drawing.
Take a piece of paper and a T-square or ruler. In pencil draw several straight lines across the length of the paper. Then freehand those lines with your pen in one stroke. That means, place your pen on the paper and don't lift the pen until you complete the line. This technique gets you accustomed to drawing those long stretches of line and making them crisp and not squiggly.
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Draw four 1 inch squares, in the first square pen in horizontal lines approximately 1/8th of an inch apart and fill the square. Do so for each box but perpendicular, diagonal right and diagonal left in the other boxes. Do so freehanded and try to keep the lines consistent in distance apart and straight as possible. You can practice not lifting your pen for each line if you wish, but I don't, and I'll explain why later on.
Now try doing the same thing but without the box as guidlines.
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For dip pens, try varied pressure techniques. That is, start with a firm pressure at the beginning of the line and as you come across slowly ease up and you get a faded line that starts thick to thin. Be sure to use a tip that allows varied pressure such as a speedball 100 or 103.

Tone, Hatching and Stippling.
Combing lines to create tone. Essentially this is the same technique you used with the boxes, except your lines are closer together. In addition to the kinds of lines you practiced above, practice arcing those lines in a consistent nature both from left and right.

I'll mention here about how I draw these kinds of lines, and why I don't maintain my pen to paper. I draw lines better at certain angles and directions. Since I'm right handed I draw from Top to Bottom and Right to Left. Although I can maintain fairly consistent lines from Left to Right, if I try to draw a line from Bottom to Top, well, you won't get a very straight line. Instead, what I do is flip the paper to make those lines connect in the middle from where I feel comfortable making them. Hopefully this made some sense, but all I know is this what works for me and feels comfortable.

Next practice hatching. Since I was never trained in art, I don't know all the proper names for types of line and hatch. I just know what it looks like. Essentially hatching is crossing lines to give whatever you are drawing definition and form and to produce shading and light.

Practice Up/Down hatching, "X" hatching or cross hatching, and then both of them together (+x ), Then random hatching. (Remember, you can move the paper!)

Now Stippling. DOT DOT DOT. While my favorite style to use and look at, painstaking amount of time is what it requires. Practice stipling from dark to light, and practice with several sizes of point. (.13 to .35) Also, practice creating objects like cubes, cones and spheres by using nothing but stippling.
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All of the above techniques make a map come to life, tough not all of them are used in the same map. Find your style and what works for you. Also, keep in mind this isn't everything, and there are many, many books out there you can use to help you along your way. I recommend "Rendering in Pen and Ink" by Arthur L. Guptill ...which primarily covers the use of dip pens, but can work for technical pens as well. The book is fairly comprehensive guide to pen and ink drawing which I would rate with 5 stars.

But those techniques are primarily what I practice in my doodling and idle time. Just keep at it and you will get the skills you need over time. It does take time though, unless you are a natural. I just know I had to work pretty hard to get to where I'm at, and I still have a long way to go before I would consider myself a master at pen and ink mapping and line drawing.

(More coming.)

delgondahntelius
10-01-2008, 03:26 PM
Any suggestions or requests on the type of map project I should use for the rest of the tutorial? Keep it simple :D I was thinking about using the challenge map this month, but I'm not sure I'm doing it in PaI. Might go digital this month. I'll keep thinking on it, but if anyone wants to see something in particular... let me know. :D

Highlander
10-01-2008, 07:25 PM
This may be a long shot, but how about a fantasy take on an existing country? Like, the British Isles, but stylized.

delgondahntelius
10-02-2008, 05:27 AM
This may be a long shot, but how about a fantasy take on an existing country? Like, the British Isles, but stylized.
Checked out your deviant art page... wow... that's a lot of nice historically rendered maps and beautiful too. I repped you for your first map in the finished maps section, and as of yet, I still have to spread some more around... but I was thinking about it, and it's the thought that counts right?

I'm still considering the GB map, but leaning towards no, it might involve a little more time and effort than I want for a tutorial. But I may still yet. I'd like to do one each of a dungeon, city and overland... but I came to my senses quickly and put it right out of my head.

I did go as far as downloading some simple maps of GB, so ya know I'm at least considering it. :D

delgondahntelius
10-03-2008, 05:43 AM
I never got a chance to get pictures of the the whole inner workings of pens. Well, late last night I was working on a line drawing, I turned and hit my hand on the desk, pen hit the desk, then the floor. It wasn't very hard, but alas, my 4x0 (.18 ) had died. He never saw it coming either. This just reminds me (and you hopefully) of how delicate the technical pens are. Especially the finest grade of tips like the 4x0 and the 6x0 (.13).

So after cleaning it up, I broke it down and shot some pictures of it to let you see what makes up a technical pen. It's both brilliant and surprising simple.
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I've mentioned it before, but you should never remove the wire from the nib, not if you want to keep the pen. You can usually get the wire back in the back in the hollow tip, especially the higher numbered pens. But the finer line pen you have, the finer the wire, thus making it harder. The 4x and the 6x both have wires that are so thin they look like a human hair, and unfortunately, they bend like it too.
Sometimes, for whatever the reason, your pens might get truly gunked up, you will have to take the inner nib workings apart. They consist of the Nib, the weight with a wire attached to one end, and the cap that holds it in place and keeps it from falling out. Like I said... simple but brilliant.
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Close up of the nib and its weight/wire and on the right, a shot of a weight with a full wire intact.

This was just to give you a good close shot of a technical pen, which I wanted to do, but didn't get the time till now. And at the same time stress the finicky nature of the pens and how the simplest jolt just might cost you $21.06 (for the original pen) + $15.94 (for the new replacement tip) ... Needless to say, I was not a happy mapper last night.

Please excuse my scrawl... if you can't read it... try harder :D

kpadua
10-03-2008, 07:27 PM
This takes me back to my college days to where I had all the supplies. Loved the Radiograph Pens! Now the supplies I have had seemed to slip away. I have joined the league of the unemployed :( and I can't afford the supplies and with raising two children, they need the food on their plates. I haven't been on the forum in about a month. But I must say that the tutorial is definitely worth five stars!!! :D

delgondahntelius
10-03-2008, 11:09 PM
This takes me back to my college days to where I had all the supplies. Loved the Radiograph Pens! Now the supplies I have had seemed to slip away. I have joined the league of the unemployed :( and I can't afford the supplies and with raising two children, they need the food on their plates. I haven't been on the forum in about a month. But I must say that the tutorial is definitely worth five stars!!! :D

Thank kpadua, I just try to put what I know down and hope someone gains some knowledge by it. But the tutorial ain't over... it's an ongoing campaign :D Appreciate the sentiments, and I understand the no money thing... now I'm stuck without a 4x0 pen .... and will be for a while...

Gamerprinter
10-04-2008, 01:28 AM
Couple suggestions for you to try, Del.

Offer a few mini-tutorials on various land forms and/or close up encounter area: create mountainous terrain step by step, create a coastline and river valley reaching the sea, create a structure exterior, and a path in the woods.

Concentrate on the immediate areas concerned, not trying to create complete maps of each tutorial area, just enough to sate some understanding of techniques with pens.

GP

delgondahntelius
10-04-2008, 02:28 AM
Couple suggestions for you to try, Del.

Offer a few mini-tutorials on various land forms and/or close up encounter area: create mountainous terrain step by step, create a coastline and river valley reaching the sea, create a structure exterior, and a path in the woods.

Concentrate on the immediate areas concerned, not trying to create complete maps of each tutorial area, just enough to sate some understanding of techniques with pens.

GP

Great Idea GP !! That actually makes more sense. Hadn't thought about it like that at all... but I think that's a good idea... plus, it won't take near the time it does to complete a map... Thanks!

delgondahntelius
10-04-2008, 10:38 AM
GamerPrinter suggested I do several different aspects of mapping with Pen and Ink, and I agree with him. This is probably the best way to cover the subject rather than just do one map.


Mountains


When drawing with P&I, I always do everything in pencil first. I usually choose a softer pencil such as a 2b or 3b. This doesn't press into the paper (leaving an indention) and the softer lead is easier to erase with a gum eraser. Always use either a Gum Eraser or a white Plastic Eraser. The white eraser's sometimes come in pencil form that you can slide in and out, adjusting the length. They do also have them in blocks like you had back in first grade.

So, we draw some mountains, some rough looking inverted "V"'s. I then block in the areas that will be shaded.
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Next comes the outline. Generally I like my mountains to have a thicker, darker outline, wider than the shading and hatch that will be used. For this and (all the rest of the outlines) I used a speedball dip pen with a Hunt 56 tip. Any of the softer, larger tips will usually work, depending on how you want it to look.

So that I don't run my hand across wet ink. (Dip Ink takes FAR longer than technical pen ink to dry.... a while, so be careful where you place your hands when inking.) I turn the paper at an angle where I'm drawing from Top>Bottom and draw all the lines in that direction at once. Then turn the paper so that I can draw the remaining lines all at once. Get into the habit of inking this way. Drawing lines that are all at the same angle on the same section you are working on. It saves time as well as not moving the paper around so much, increasing the chance of smearing wet ink.
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Next comes the shading. There are several ways to do so, not all of them are shown here, but experiment and find what you like and what catches your eye. The first one I used a random hatch that didn't (tried not to) cross each other as it covered the shaded side of the mountain. I used tech. pens #1; 0; 00; and 3x0 to let you see the varying widths.
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The next hatching is just a random series of lines sketched at different angles over the shaded part of the mountain. The top was done with tech. pens, the bottom with dip pens.
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And last, full shading, similar to tolkien style mountains and fairly popular with the public. I personally don't like them to much but I thought I'd add this in. These types of mountains, and this type of shading should probably not be done with tech. pens as they were not made to 'shade' or ink in large swatches of black. These were done with Dip pens having wide tips that distribute a lot of ink at once. B5, 513EF, 56 and 99 were used in this one.
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Practice drawing you mountains as you doodle and you will find they become easier and easier to draw. I've drawn so many mountains to date that I should actually own the Rockies.

This same principal applies to your hills as well. Because what is a hill but just a little mountains :D

If you want to see a certain type of mountains style, just request it and I'll do my best to accommodate your needs.

Highlander
10-04-2008, 11:46 AM
Actually, if you would like, would it be possible to do a quick one on how you do hills as well? Personally, I can do mountains well, but hills always mess me up, as I'm never sure where to shade them.

delgondahntelius
10-04-2008, 01:13 PM
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Sure thing. I too had trouble with shading hills, so I taught myself a little trick. The thing with hills (imo) is that they need just subtle shading. One of the mistakes I would make (still do sometimes) is over shading them. So try to train yourself to put in very few lines ... because you can always add more, its harder to take them out.

Step 1, draw the hill. For this hill, we make the simple upside down "U"'s with a little flare at the bottoms.
Step 2, start 2/3 the length of the hill at the base and draw a line back to meet up with the (shaded) back side of the hill.
Step 3, start at the apex of the hill, slightly off center and draw a basic "C" shape connecting with where you started the line in step 2.
Step 4, Block it all in. You have a shaded hill!!
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Practice doing hills like this whenever you can it trains the eye and hand to to make that simple shape come natural and precise everytime.

Now, shade them on the same side you have your mountains shaded, but make them a little more subtle and less dark. Even using fewer lines than I have used in the example. Put hatch along the "C" shape and slide lines down the back curve.
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Once you get simple hills down, then make the rugged hills that match your mountains, remember simple and less is usually more. So just put in a few lines on the shaded side for each hill, do each hill with a few lines and then step back and look at it .... add more to suite :D and you have some hills
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I hope that helps out in some way.

Highlander
10-04-2008, 08:16 PM
That really helps! I went and tried it, and it looks very good.

Maybe forests next? :D I'm finding your information extremely helpful.

ravells
10-04-2008, 09:12 PM
This is turning out to be a serious masterclass - thanks Del!

delgondahntelius
10-05-2008, 02:21 AM
That really helps! I went and tried it, and it looks very good.
Maybe forests next? :D I'm finding your information extremely helpful.

Glad to help Highlander. I'm glad if at least one person gains anything from these tutorials. I'm surprised that I can show/teach anyone anything at all. I'm working on forests right now, which is fairly broad in ways to map, but I'll try to cover all the basics.


This is turning out to be a serious masterclass - thanks Del!
Much Obliged Rav. Masterclass tho? That's pushing the bill, I'm just happy with being a tutorial winner :D

I'm open to questions and suggestions from everyone though, I'm actually surprised at how much I like making these tutorials, it's quite a bit of work, but fun at the same time.

delgondahntelius
10-05-2008, 09:12 AM
I'm going to have to go back and collect all this stuff and put it into a PDF for ya'll to download. I didn't expect the tutorial to encompass as much as it has so far. And I still have Loads I can do.
-----------------------------------------------

Pen and Ink Tutorial: Forests

Such a broad range of styles can be applied to depict a forested area on a map. I had trouble deciding where I could start it, what I should show in it, and how I was going to do that. So when in doubt, start at the beginning and show the basics, so that's what I'll do.

I've always broken forest's down into three main categories. Deciduous forests (Oak, maple, beech, elm, etc...) Coniferous forests (pine, fir, cedars, redwoods, etc...) and Tropical Forest (Jungle).

I drew simple shapes, the kind you find on a lot of simple line drawn maps, each a basic representation of the kind of category they represent. First the Pencil drawing (3b) and then inked them in with an outline (tech pen .50) and shading (tech pen .30)
Your shading really depends on your map, like these ISO trees. I drew them in the same basic direction as I've been shading everything else I've drawn in the tutorial so far. I also would start out with less lines when you shade the dark side of the tree, I (of course) drew too many, probably because it was a single tree each, on a fairly large scale where trees are concerened.
Generally if you are placing single trees around the map in various locations. The will be smaller than this, but more importantly they don't require too much shading on the 'leaves', I generally like to show shadow by placing one on the ground where you would normally see a shadow, and maybe ink a small part of the dark side of the symbol. Since this Forest tutorial will likely run in two parts, I'll try to show it the next go around.
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Notice that you bring your strokes down all in the same direction. You can go back and forth, as long as its in that direction. I did anyway.

Ready for the secret to trees?
3.
Yep... the number 3. This is the primary stroke I use to make trees, over and over, in different directions. I show you step by step, just put one 3 next to the other until you complete a circle. and VIOLA!! You have a tree.
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Big deal, right? YES

Now use that same stroke to link together a series of treetops. Sometimes I do one tree at time, blended together, other times outline the entire top part and fill it in with the 3 stroke. Then plant some trunks underneath it and start shading.
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Notice I used a simple cross thatch on the ground, stipple to darken the interior of the forest, and a scribble thatch for the treetops. A scribble thatch might be my own made up term, but it means do just that, scribble (Lightly!) into the area with a fine tech pen (.25, .18 or .13) to give the forest definition and 'leaves'.

From there, its variations of how you present the forest on the map, of which there are probably hundreds of which I'm not even aware of. But the ones below are the ones that I generally use or variations there of.
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I'll be continuing this with the other two forest types, when I get it finished. Only had time to do this one. Enjoy. Again, any questions or specific examples that you want to see... please let me know and I will try to accommodate.

Steel General
10-05-2008, 11:01 AM
Great job so far Delgo!

I may never get into hand inked maps, but if I ever decide I know where to go to get started.

I dub thee newly repped *bonk*

mmmmmpig
10-05-2008, 11:57 PM
This just keeps getting better and better

Highlander
10-06-2008, 07:06 PM
Hey, out of curiosity, have you ever considered writing a book about this? If you wrote it in a similar way that you do your tutorials, I'm positive that there would be a sizable market; for example, when I tell people that I make maps, they're impression is "Hey, that's cool, I'd like to do that!"

Check out Lulu (http://www.lulu.com/) sometime, if you're interested. It's a very nice self publishing company.

Ascension
10-06-2008, 08:33 PM
You know that I loves me some old school pen and ink and these practice sessions are awesome...I haven't done them in years. Thanks man! And that book isn't a half bad idea...look at all the junk on the shelves at the bookstore about how to draw Anime. But maybe there'd have to be some other stuff in there as well in order to "bulk" it up and charge 50 bucks.

Pallamadarius
10-06-2008, 09:23 PM
Wow I gotta say this tutorial was awesome. You know your techniques are good for digital too if you have the right stuff. I just got CC3 thanks to my Dad :D and a writing tablet (wow what more could a kid ask for right). I'm gonna get started on doing some of those tutorials and seeing what I can come up with and finally post a map on here. Been far too long.

delgondahntelius
10-06-2008, 09:29 PM
Part 2.
Coniferous and Jungle forest.
Wasn't really happy about this ... episode I guess you would call it. Both sets of jungle aren't my strongest suite's.

Here I show the lighter shading of the simple drawing we did before.
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Here's a note on mixing your conifer and deciduous (which I spelled wrong, unfortunately photoshop doesn't have a word check :D )
Start with your conifer trees first, just draw your triangular tops, and scatter them throughout the area you plan to forest. Then go in and outline with your other forest and fill it in. It should look a bit more natural this way.
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Unless anyone want's specific terrains... I believe we'll go for rivers and coastlines next.

I never really use the conifer type of tree in my maps, mainly because I'm not too great with them. But I tried my best, I think the thing with them is not shading them too much, and most mountain pines have long trunks before any of their branches start. Keep them roughly triangular and flatten out the bottoms... conifers lowest branches often branch straight out, well, actually most of their branches do.
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Drawing pines and cedars from a top-down standpoint isn't something I would suggest unless you develop a technique for showing them that is simpler and still conveys the idea that you are looking at coniferous trees. I've done up a couple of the kinds I draw, as well as one where you might show lonely pines on hills...
To do the top-down pine in the middle of the picture, you first start wout with radial lines from a center point. 5 or 6 should do. Ink all one side of the branches first, turning the paper as necessary, and then go back and do the otherside, tapering the 'needles' outward as you end the branch. If it looks a little like Charlie Brown's Christmas Tree, go in and a few more branches. Don't start these from the middle, but from where the lines stop from the surrounding branches. Inking from the same spot will tear your paper and/or create something akin to a black hole rather than a tree.
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With jungles you basically want some jagged looking leaves. Below I give several varieties of what you can try with jungle trees. Start with the outline and then just randomly fill in some triangles... I usually stick to one central triangle then put one on each side at an angle... repeating the pattern as necessary. Same for the top-down jungles as well. Just experiment and see what looks good. :D
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delgondahntelius
10-06-2008, 09:42 PM
Great job so far Delgo!
I may never get into hand inked maps, but if I ever decide I know where to go to get started.
I dub thee newly repped *bonk*

This just keeps getting better and better
Thanks to both of you SG and 5mpig :D appreciate it.


Hey, out of curiosity, have you ever considered writing a book about this? If you wrote it in a similar way that you do your tutorials, I'm positive that there would be a sizable market; for example, when I tell people that I make maps, they're impression is "Hey, that's cool, I'd like to do that!"
Check out Lulu (http://www.lulu.com/) sometime, if you're interested. It's a very nice self publishing company.
Actually have a publishing company, My wife and I are writers as well, and we're putting out our first book soon :D which we've discussed at length in this thread Book Maps (http://www.cartographersguild.com/showthread.php?t=3034&highlight=book+maps)
But I hadn't considered it until you mentioned it... and now I'm seriously considering doing just that. I don't, I'd have to think about it really, as a publisher, you sink a lot of money into a book even before it hits the shelf... so its a little scary.


You know that I loves me some old school pen and ink and these practice sessions are awesome...I haven't done them in years. Thanks man! And that book isn't a half bad idea...look at all the junk on the shelves at the bookstore about how to draw Anime. But maybe there'd have to be some other stuff in there as well in order to "bulk" it up and charge 50 bucks.
Yep Ascension... I'm seriously considering it. I think I'd be putting in not only the drawing aspect but the ability to transfer and manipulate it digitally. And it wouldn't be just pen and ink I think, I'd add color mapping as well.


Wow I gotta say this tutorial was awesome. You know your techniques are good for digital too if you have the right stuff. I just got CC3 thanks to my Dad :D and a writing tablet (wow what more could a kid ask for right). I'm gonna get started on doing some of those tutorials and seeing what I can come up with and finally post a map on here. Been far too long.
Thanks Pallamadarius... Your dad sounds like an AWESOME guy. :D Post a map up .. we love maps... post them up and let's see them!! :)

RobA
10-07-2008, 03:38 PM
Del-

You haven't mentioned the use of tracing paper... Any opinions on that? I have been working on a map and drawing elements using tracing paper (over a printout of the map) then scanning those in as a layer in Gimp.

-Rob A>

delgondahntelius
10-07-2008, 10:53 PM
I was saving all the computer related info until after I had went over the basics... just little hit and run tutorials that deal with all the major features of a map... kinda theme based I suppose... I'm getting told alot lately though that what i'm up here talking about can be applied to digital mapping as well as pen and ink... so I might just expand out to cover some digital stuff while I fumble through my mess of a tutorial... :D

Thanks Rob for the reminder though, I probably would have forgotten that (among many other things)... :)

delgondahntelius
10-08-2008, 02:46 PM
Little slow on this one, but here at last, coastlines, rivers and lakes.

Rob mentioned tracing paper and I was going to wait till the end to go over the digital aspect to pen and ink maps. But most of this stuff can be done digitally, you don't have to use pen and paper, you could just as easily use a Tablet and stylus, the same principles apply.

A majority of what I ink ends up getting scanned in to the computer for use digitally, and that alone has cut down on the mistakes I make. Well, no, It cuts down on the number of noticeable mistakes in whatever I draw :D

So you ask, what does tracing paper have to do with digital maps? Why can't I just scan it in, whatever I draw? True... you can do that. But tracing paper to fix mistakes on digital work, matching it up perfectly. I've found it invaluable for adding hand written text in by tracing over font styles or by tracing over Celtic knot work.
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RobA for instance, drew a really nice map (http://www.cartographersguild.com/showthread.php?t=1729), but had done it graph paper, which he was having trouble editing out digitally. Tracing paper to the rescue, he copied his town exactly the way he'd drawn it minus the grid and it turned out Fantastic. But that's just a few things you can do with Tracing paper and Digital Art. I feel I should get on with the tutorial I planned :D

Coastlines

There's a point and time when you realize that the coastal regions you are drawing just aren't measuring up. At least it came to me as a sudden realization, and I strove to make more believable coastlines ever since. We should probably identify what parts actually make up a coastal region. I had to cut my usual pictures down to one per category as the limit on post images is set to 5. I'll be referring to this throughout the coastal part of the tut.
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1. Peninsula (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peninsula)
2.Bay, (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Headlands_and_bays)Cape, (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Headlands_and_bays)Cove, (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cove)Gulf (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Headlands_and_bays)
3. Tombolo (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tombolo)
4. Lagoon.
5. Island.
6. spit (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spit_%28landform%29)
7.Estuary (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Estuary)
8. Delta (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/River_delta)
9. Sand bar or Shoal.

Of couse, not a definitive list of things you find on a coast, these are the ones I most often draw and deal with. Putting some of these in the right amount of places makes the difference between a really interesting map.. and a really blasť map that has no character. Interesting coastlines aren't all that easy to make, but with practice, and a good eye, you shouldn't have any problems with them after this :D

The way I started drawing coastlines was to first look at some of earth's coastlines. Scotland (http://maps.google.com/maps?hl=en&ie=UTF8&ll=57.837441,-5.603027&spn=0.884547,3.087158&z=9), Greece (http://maps.google.com/maps?hl=en&ie=UTF8&ll=38.505191,27.092285&spn=5.200442,12.348633&t=p&z=7), Alaska (http://maps.google.com/?ie=UTF8&ll=57.425731,-156.862793&spn=0.894632,3.087158&t=p&z=9), Cape Horn, (http://maps.google.com/maps?t=p&hl=en&ie=UTF8&ll=-53.559889,-71.004639&spn=3.948993,12.348633&z=7) Indonesia (http://maps.google.com/maps?hl=en&ie=UTF8&ll=0.153808,129.70459&spn=3.322886,6.174316&t=p&z=8)are some good places to start out looking at coastline. And when I say coastline I mean islands too, they are coastline after all. Switch from Terrain mode to map mode and look at them with both styles. Now sit down and try to draw some of those coastlines.

Above I illustrate how I go about ... I draw a line defining the where I about I want the coast. I then refine it, and once refined, I finish it off. I prefer heavy dark lines for the coast so they stand out. Keep practicing :D

Still giving you trouble, try the blind coast taste test. Draw a rough indication of where you want your coastline. Takea look at it ... now put your pen where your starting line was and close your eyes and try to draw along that line. make it slow and steady and try to keep it on that line you just drew... AMAZING :D you just drew a random near fractilized coast, congratulations... keep practicing that same unsteady hand movement and you will be able to draw some freehand coastlines in no time. Next to those coastlines are some of the effects I use to give the definition to coastal waters... keep the shaded parts as water, of course.

Still not getting coastlines down? Print off of google maps some of those coastlines you were admiring, or if you are doing them directly in your choice of software (Gimp, PS) if you can't download a googlemap either screen shot it or search the area you like in google images where you can find some really nice maps. then take your tracing paper and trace various sorts of coast line ... picking up the tracing paper and moving it around till you find a section of coast you like, get your tracing paper filled up and then scan it in and pull it up. start cutting up those sections and pasting them into the map and connecting them together to make your own coastline. If you still can't get it ... let me know, I'll draw them for you and only charge you a nominal fee :D Coastal Tax

Now, if we take a look at some rivers we have here on this wonderful planet: Congo (http://maps.google.com/maps?hl=en&ie=UTF8&ll=0.552054,25.090027&spn=1.590146,3.087158&z=9), S. America (http://maps.google.com/maps?hl=en&ie=UTF8&ll=8.857934,-60.523682&spn=1.641803,3.087158&z=9),
and another S. America (http://maps.google.com/maps?hl=en&ie=UTF8&ll=-1.603794,-51.377563&spn=3.321602,6.174316&z=8) Now those are some hellish rivers my friends.
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River Rules to Live By.
The first is obvious, or should be, gravity is what it is, and water the magnitude of rivers here weight literally megatons. They always seek the lowest point on a map, and point is (usually) sea level. Unless you have some magical explanation for something otherwise, in which case you should probably relate that to people who see the map.

#2 is basically a hard and fast rule that I use, I don't know if it's going to send up red flags for people or not. But rivers tend to 'meander'. so to gage how your river should work, just measure the distance from starting point to stopping point in a straight line, multiply that by 3 and that is how long the river should be... winding back and forth until it gets there.

#3 is a big deal. At least it seems to be here at the guild. Rivers don't split (generally) going downhill. Eventually one channel will win out and all the water will divert down that path.

Then basically like a coastline you draw some rivers, except that you keep the lines smoother and let it meander through your map :D
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Lakes, let's take a look: Victoria (http://maps.google.com/maps?hl=en&ie=UTF8&ll=-1.049136,33.62915&spn=3.179604,6.174316&z=8), Canada (http://maps.google.com/maps?t=p&hl=en&ie=UTF8&ll=61.296626,-100.140381&spn=3.055658,12.348633&z=7), and that is why canada is called the land of a billion and two lakes.

Below are some of the types of lakes we find here on this beautiful ball of rock.
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Subglacial (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subglacial_lake)
Glacial lake (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glacial_lake)
Endorheic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endorheic)
Fjord lake (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fjord)
Oxbow (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxbow_lake)
Rift lake (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rift_lake)
Crater (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crater_lake)

Sorry to cut the lakes real short, but after coastlines and rivers, lakes should be a breeze! :D
Feel free to ask me some questions. Or if you need some examples.... Or anything at all. :D

Sirith
10-09-2008, 02:11 PM
Your latest post is so far the one I like most. Very informative, and those rivers you linked are an awesome sight. Keep it coming!

(Also, your remark of 'always doodling' has had its effect ;). I'm not doodling all the time, but a lot more than I used to, and I discovered how fun it was and now is again. Good stuff! And thank you :))

delgondahntelius
10-10-2008, 02:51 AM
Your latest post is so far the one I like most. Very informative, and those rivers you linked are an awesome sight. Keep it coming!

(Also, your remark of 'always doodling' has had its effect ;). I'm not doodling all the time, but a lot more than I used to, and I discovered how fun it was and now is again. Good stuff! And thank you :))

Thanks Sirith .. its comments like these that make posting a tutorial all worth while :D Glad I could be of some use, you welcome ;)

Highlander
10-28-2008, 08:55 PM
Sorry I haven't posted in awhile - are you still doing this series? If so, could you do one on different styles of fonts and such you use for pen and ink?

Korash
12-08-2008, 11:03 PM
(Little boy in ragged cloths stands with bowl cupped in both hand and extended towards the school master. He has a starved and worn cast to his features)

"Please Sir, can I have some more. Please"

I think this is a great tutorial, and one that I have been wanting to find for SOOOOO long. I am an avid pen and paper drawer of land masses but SUUUck at the terrain features no matter how much I try. This tut is giving me the urge to try again.

Thanks again.

Repped and rated

jfrazierjr
12-09-2008, 08:28 AM
Del started a new job a few weeks ago and is on the road, so don't expect any updates to this until his training period is over which won't be until the end of this year at least as he is pretty much work, sleep, work mode.

Korash
12-09-2008, 12:09 PM
no rush :)

just stumbled over this and wanted him to know that it was with much relief that stubbed my toes. :D

besides, the time between posts will give me more time to absorb what was already laid before me.

delgondahntelius
12-17-2008, 09:19 PM
Yep... Jojo said it, i'm a working stiff .... so I've got 'responsibilities' to take care of .... But I will be delving into it again hopefully in the new year... Thanks for the praise Korash and thank you all for the patience :D

Juggernaut1981
01-07-2010, 08:01 PM
Del,
Ironically, this tutorial inspired me to do it the "old fashioned way" on my big WIP project... draw every last mountain, hill, forest and swamp by hand. Hopefully it will look better than "passing average"... but then my drawing skills aren't exceptional and between everything else I do in my time I don't get the chance to practice properly and improve... (btw.. i HATE drawing living things... they NEVER look right)

juliadesusa
12-30-2010, 11:48 PM
It is quite Amazing creation.Hand draw Map with the pen and the diffract type of Inks,Its a good Idea,I have read your Ides and the things that are really informative and good to make MAP on the paper,Different type of nibs,inks and the pens are required to make the MAP.For the colour and the surface of the mountain and the roads will be highlighted with these Ink.Good job.Got such a god Ideas from this.