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jaspertjie
06-29-2009, 10:52 AM
Does anyone have a conlang?
If so please translate this:
I am / Qu trit
You are / Qus trits
He is / Qath tritq
She is / Qaeth tritq
It is / Qite tritq
We are / Quk trin
You are / Qusk trib
They are / Qathel trin

waldronate
06-29-2009, 06:21 PM
Que? It seems that you have included the translations...

Alfar
06-30-2009, 03:55 AM
Could be he included what they are in his conlang, and wants us to post what they are in ours?

waldronate
06-30-2009, 06:29 AM
Yes, that makes much more sense that what I was thinking. My brain is like a pea in that it is small, wrinkly, green, and tasty in soup.

Karro
07-01-2009, 12:09 PM
Hmm. Whether a conlang has words or phrases that translate simply into the words/phrases above says a lot about the form and structure of the language, I think. I wouldn't expect every conlang to be that convenient, and when it did, I'd suspect the lang had a bit of a european influence in its development.

(That being said... I, being of european descent, have an affinity for european-styled languages that structure in this way...)

jaspertjie
07-01-2009, 02:33 PM
instead of you all translate it you go talkin' about it.

beriothien
07-01-2009, 05:51 PM
Is that not the purpose of a forum? Discussion? Anyway, maybe I'l have something up later, if I can be bothered to search up the file.

ravells
07-01-2009, 06:15 PM
How about:

ik ben
jij bent
hij is
wij zijn
jullie zijn
zij zijn

Blaidd Drwg
07-02-2009, 03:39 AM
How about:

ik ben
jij bent
hij is
wij zijn
jullie zijn
zij zijn
Dude, Dutch is not a conlang! :P
Although I must admit... it would be pretty cool if my native language was a conlang.

But fine, here goes my own favorite conlang Irduron:
em (ec) - I am
es (sy) - you are
et (e) - he is
est (h) - she is
sei (wir) - we are
sr (dir) - you are (pl)
sech (ear) - they are

Since Irduron is a pro-drop language and the personal pronoun is usually omitted, I put them in parentheses.

ravells
07-02-2009, 07:39 AM
heh, Jaspertjie is dutch, I thought he was asking for a translation :)

jaspertjie
07-02-2009, 08:42 AM
heh, Jaspertjie is dutch, I thought he was asking for a translation :)


first of all, I asked for a CONLANG no NATLANG



ik ben
jij bent
hij is
zij is
het is
wij zijn
jullie zijn
zij zijn

dat was incompleet. Zie de toevoeging

Karro
07-02-2009, 11:56 AM
first of all, I asked for a CONLANG no NATLANG



dat was incompleet. Zie de toevoeging

So, you only want something here if it's from a complete conlang, or would a wip suffice?

su_liam
07-03-2009, 02:00 AM
Is there any other kind?

bartmoss
07-05-2009, 08:50 PM
Does anyone have a conlang?
If so please translate this:
I am / Qu trit
You are / Qus trits
He is / Qath tritq
She is / Qaeth tritq
It is / Qite tritq
We are / Quk trin
You are / Qusk trib
They are / Qathel trin

I am: /ka zu/
You are: /ka za/
He is: /ka ze/
She is: /ka ze/
It is: /ka ze/
We are: /ka zuze/ ("I and others are") or /ka zuza/ ("You and I are")
You are: /ka zaze/
They are: /ka zeze/


What can I say; it is my first conlang and I started really simplistic. ;)

Karro
07-07-2009, 10:00 AM
Is there any other kind?

Mmm, touche. Even the fabled master of conlanging (one prof. Tolkien) never completed his conlangs.

Although, as I understand it, Esparanto and a few other "aux langs" are complete enough to be useable, even if they lack character.

Qwynegold
10-06-2009, 02:31 PM
OK, let's see now...

In Qwynegold (Qwadralnia dialect)
I am - ix ze /ˈɪks ˈz/
You are - uz ze /ˈuts ˈz/
He is - huo ze /ˈhuo ˈz/
She is - huo ze /ˈhuo ˈz/
It is - oh ****, I haven't decided how to deal with inanimates yet
We are - xie ze /ˈksɪe ˈz/
You are - zuo ze /ˈtsuo ˈz/
They are - quō ze /ˈkɰoː ˈz/

In Qwynegold (Quadralnia dialect)
I am - ix ze /ˈɪks ˈz/
You are - uz ze /ˈuts ˈz/
He is - huo ze /ˈhuo ˈz/
She is - huo ze /ˈhuo ˈz/
It is - oh ****, I haven't decided how to deal with inanimates yet
We are - xia ze /ˈksɪa ˈz/
You are - zwa ze /ˈtsɰa ˈz/
They are - vuue ze /ˈvu˒ː ˈz/

In Songulda
I am - um ham /um hɑm/
You are - tĭ hat /tɨ hɑt/
He is - ata hata /ɑtɑ hɑtɑ/
She is - ata hata /ɑtɑ hɑtɑ/
It is - at hata /ɑt hɑtɑ/
We are - uso haso /uso hɑso/
You are - to hato /to hɑto/
They are - ato hato /ɑto hɑto/

In Xǔngpng
Ah, tone bars aren't displayed properly, so I have to use numbers. 1 = high tone, 2 = falling tone, 3 = rising tone, 4 = falling-rising tone.
I am - xm wo /ɕam3 o1/
You are - xh wo /dʑa2 o1/
He is - bu wo /pu1 o1/
She is - j wo /tɕa2 o1/
It is - vocabulary missing :(
We (exclusive) are - t wo /tʰo3 o1/
We (inclusive) are - ke wo /kʰe1 o1/
You are - siǔ wo /sju4 o1/
They are - kiǔm wo /kʰjum4 o1/

In Lhueslue
I am (said by any sex, seldom used) - Eeng laj /ɛŋ laʒ/
I am (said by a female) - Eeng caj /ɛŋ ɕaʒ/
I am (said by a male) - Eeng raj /ɛŋ raʒ/
I am (said by a god) - Eeng uej /ɛŋ yʒ/
You are (said about any sex, seldom used) - Eeng lixh /ɛŋ lix/
You are (said about a female) - Eeng cixh /ɛŋ ɕix/
You are (said about a male) - Eeng rixh /ɛŋ rix/
You are (said about a god) - Eeng uexh /ɛŋ yx/
He is - Eeng rong /ɛŋ roŋ/
She is - Eeng cong /ɛŋ ɕoŋ/
It (light) is - Eeng ding /ɛŋ diŋ/
It (metal) is - Eeng kong /ɛŋ koŋ/
It (feminine) is - Eeng cong /ɛŋ ɕoŋ/
It (fire) is - Eeng fong /ɛŋ foŋ/
It (dark) is - Eeng tieng /ɛŋ tɘŋ/
It (earth) is - Eeng mong /ɛŋ moŋ/
It (masculine) is - Eeng rong /ɛŋ roŋ/
It (wood) is - Eeng thong /ɛŋ θoŋ/
It (water) is - Eeng shong /ɛŋ ʃoŋ/
It (ether) is - Eeng lhueng /ɛŋ ɬyŋ/
It (air) is - Eeng hong /ɛŋ hoŋ/
We are (mixed group) - Eeng lajlaj /ɛŋ laʒlaʒ/
We are (masculine group) - Eeng rajraj /ɛŋ raʒraʒ/
We are (feminine group) - Eeng cajcaj /ɛŋ ɕaʒɕaʒ/
You are (mixed group) - Eeng lixhlixh /ɛŋ lixlix/
You are (masculine group) - Eeng rixhrixh /ɛŋ rixrix/
You are (feminine group) - Eeng cixhcixh /ɛŋ ɕixɕix/
They are - Eeng longlong /ɛŋ loŋloŋ/

In Yanusu
I am (familiar speech) - Naa i /naː i/
I am (humble speech) - Naya yinu /naja jinu/
I am (royal speech) - Nakayasa kasu /nakajasa kasu/
You are (rude speech) - Sa i /sa i/
You are (familiar speech) - Sana i /sana i/
You are (honorific speech) - Anaya asi /anaja asi/
You are (said to a holy person) - Yatania asi /jatania asi/
You are (royal speech) - Unasa kasu /unasa kasu/
He is (rude speech) - Ikisa i /ikisa i/
He is (familiar speech) - Kua i /kua i/
He is (honorific speech) - Ata ata /ata ata/
He is (said about a holy person) - Yatanisa ata /jatanisa ata/
He is (royal speech) - Unata kasu /unata kasu/
She is (rude speech) - Ikisa i /ikisa i/
She is (familiar speech) - Kua i /kua i/
She is (honorific speech) - Ata ata /ata ata/
She is (said about a holy person) - Yatanisa ata /jatanisa ata/
She is (royal speech) - Unata kasu /unata kasu/
It is (rude speech) - Isa i /isa i/
It is (familiar speech) - Sisa i /sisa i/
It is (honorific speech) - Sisata ata /sisata ata/
It is (said about a holy thing) - Yatasisa ata /jatasisa ata/
It is (royal speech) - Sisasa kasu /sisasa kasu/
We are (familiar speech) - Kaa i /kaː i/
We are (humble speech) - Kaaya yinu /kaːja jinu/
We are (royal speech) - Kayanasa kasu /kajanasa kasu/
You are (rude speech) - Ku'ika i /kuika i/
You are (familiar speech) - Tana i /tana i/
You are (honorific speech) - Kanaya asi /kanaja asi/
You are (said to a holy person) - Yatania asi /jatania asi/
You are (royal speech) - Kunasa kasu /kunasa kasu/
They are (rude speech) - Ku'ikisa i /kuikisa i/
They are (familiar speech) - Ya i /ja i/
They are (honorific speech) - Kata ata /kata ata/
They are (said about a holy person) - Yatanisa ata /jatanisa ata/
They are (royal speech) - Kunata kasu /kunata kasu/

The rest of my conlangs aren't well-developed enough.

Qwynegold
10-06-2009, 02:43 PM
So, you only want something here if it's from a complete conlang, or would a wip suffice?
I think that he ironically meant that you had forgotten to translate the word "is".:twisted:

Jeff_Wilson63
10-06-2009, 10:14 PM
Let me start by explaining that these sentences would never occur in Glyphica Arcana (http://www.monticello21st.com/myths/BabelTarot.html). However, since I'm working on that project I'll do my best to provide an adequate translation. Note, however, that nouns in GA are not marked for gender, so he/she/it are all the same symbol.

(Note that the images are in svg as I haven't figured out how to import GA files into Inkscape to export to png.)

{First person singular pronoun} exists: http://www.monticello21st.com/glyphica/svg/Gly1stSing.svg

{First person plural pronoun} exists: http://www.monticello21st.com/glyphica/svg/Gly1stPlur.svg

{Second person singular pronoun} exists: http://www.monticello21st.com/glyphica/svg/Gly2ndSing.svg

{Second person plural pronoun} exists: http://www.monticello21st.com/glyphica/svg/Gly2ndPlur.svg

{Third person singular pronoun} exists: http://www.monticello21st.com/glyphica/svg/Gly3rdSing.svg

{Third person plural pronoun} exists: http://www.monticello21st.com/glyphica/svg/Gly3rdPlur.svg

su_liam
10-06-2009, 10:46 PM
"Is," can't always be translated. A verb for a simple equational? English is just weird!

Jeff_Wilson63
10-10-2009, 08:22 PM
I finally got an svg converter so I can actually post the images for those who don't want to follow links.

http://www.monticello21st.com/glyphica/png/Gly1stSing.png {First person singular pronoun} exists
http://www.monticello21st.com/glyphica/png/Gly1stPlur.png {First person plural pronoun} exists
http://www.monticello21st.com/glyphica/png/Gly2ndSing.png {Second person singular pronoun} exists
http://www.monticello21st.com/glyphica/png/Gly2ndPlur.png{Second person plural pronoun} exists
http://www.monticello21st.com/glyphica/png/Gly3rdSing.png{Third person singular pronoun} exists
http://www.monticello21st.com/glyphica/png/Gly3rdPlur.png{Third person plural pronoun} exists

Qwynegold
10-11-2009, 12:58 PM
I finally got an svg converter so I can actually post the images for those who don't want to follow links.

http://www.monticello21st.com/glyphica/thumb/Gly1stSing.png {First person singular pronoun} exists
http://www.monticello21st.com/glyphica/thumb/Gly1stPlur.png {First person plural pronoun} exists
http://www.monticello21st.com/glyphica/thumb/Gly2ndSing.png {Second person singular pronoun} exists
http://www.monticello21st.com/glyphica/thumb/Gly2ndPlur.png{Second person plural pronoun} exists
http://www.monticello21st.com/glyphica/thumb/Gly3rdSing.png{Third person singular pronoun} exists
http://www.monticello21st.com/glyphica/thumb/Gly3rdPlur.png{Third person plural pronoun} exists
I can't see the images, pasting the url into the browser doesn't work and the previous links you posted don't work either. :/

Jeff_Wilson63
10-11-2009, 05:52 PM
I apologize. I rearranged directories last night, and forgot it would screw up these posts. I've edited the previous posts to fix the problem. Thank you for letting me know about the problem.

Qwynegold
10-13-2009, 11:12 AM
Interesting, allthough a bit complicated. Is it related to the picture in your avatar?

Jeff_Wilson63
10-13-2009, 04:09 PM
It's all the same system. There are 162 basic symbols, and 50+ grammatical markers. Name glyphs are formed from 5 symbols and 4 'name' grammatical markers. Here's another example:

http://www.monticello21st.com/glyphica/png/Gly_Name_Example.png
You can see the same 'Dream' symbol at the bottom of the above glyph, and to the left in my avatar. There are 104 trillion possible symbol combinations for names alone.

My primary influences were Chinese and Mayan writing. Glyphica Arcana (http://www.monticello21st.com/myths/BabelTarot.html) is completely ideographic and two-dimensional (instead of linear) and probably isn't very practical. Human minds haven't evolved in that direction. It is pretty though, and fun to use as a mystical script.

Since the ideoglyphs don't align with English, building up vocabulary is an extended process. :( I never completed the Babel text, but I do have several verses, including the first (pre-svg format):
http://www.monticello21st.com/gifs/sy2_Grp_Babel1.png "And the whole earth was of one language and speech;" becomes, "And there was but one speech."

minifidel
11-10-2009, 10:12 PM
I'm discovering that conlangs are a lot more work than I thought, since you can't help but make it up as you go :D

I'm quite pleased with what I've come up with though, Saetian, which I've created as a proto-latin in this world I've created (it serves very much the same role as latin in this world actually, since most modern languages in the main continent are derived from or related to it). It's pronounced pretty much like spanish though.


Eser
Eo eso / Eo era / Eo o esto
To eses / To erais / To ai esto
Lo es / Lo era / Lo a esto
Noi samo / Noi eramos / Noi oamo esto
Voi sai / Voi eran / Voi oai esto
Loi san / Loi eran / Loi an esto

To be
I am / I was / I have been
You are / You were / You have been
He is / He was / He has been
We Are / We were / We have been
You Are / You were / You have been
They are / They were / They have been

Like Spanish and Italian, this language has both Ester and Eser, like Estar and Ser or Essere and Stare.

EDIT: Forgot to include the alphabet that I developed, which I think is somewhat similar to Arab or Sanskrit, but which my brother claims resembles an Alien alphabet...

http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v423/dontdokokes/saetianscriptresized.png

Karro
11-11-2009, 10:39 AM
Is your "y" character meant to be essentially the same character as the "j" character but just with an underline beneath it?

Additionally, you say the language is pronounced like spanish. That being the case, how is the "j" character pronounced? (Similar to "h" or similar to "y"?) What differentiates it from "h" or "y"?

Within the context of the imaginary world this language evolved in, if "j" is pronounced similarly to "h" or to "y", have you considered what sort of circumstances may have given rise to two letters in their alphabet having effectively the same pronounciation?

robot_spider
11-11-2009, 06:41 PM
This all brings up fond memories of Spanish class.

jaspertjie
11-16-2009, 01:37 PM
This is a piece in my language: Maraxxian.

Rubberduck
11-23-2009, 03:45 PM
I have an old conlang lying around from an alien race

I am / Hetet en
You are / Artet en
He/She is / Haje en
E is / Naje en
It is / Ma en
We are / Hepe en
You are / Harpe en
They are / Narten en

Karro
11-30-2009, 10:48 AM
E is?

Is that representative of another gender in the alien race? Interesting b/c you also have a combined pronoun for "He/She" and a separate pronoun for "it", so I'm curious what the "E" pronoun (Naje) represents and why there might be a differentiation of "E" vs. "He/She" and "it".

Rubberduck
12-10-2009, 04:35 AM
E is the word I generally use for non-gendered intelligent entities, such as AI. In the case of this language the one point where I used it was in relation to god.

"The great builder saw the light was good, and e spread the light, and created islands of light in the darkness. And e rested for the first day."

http://therubberduck.net/edenabove/bible.html

http://therubberduck.net/edenabove/dictionary.html

Servant Of Thor
04-18-2010, 11:50 PM
Here is my most complete with almost 1000 words, I need more verb tenses though, I only have present past and future; hmm, maybe I'll get going on those. Also I only have the indicative form of verbs, no subjunctive or imperative. But they look alike because I went with a more militaristic structure. I.E. easy to use logically based.

------------------Singular---------------Plural

First person-----khaz-thitoghs------menu-thitoghr

Second person--thaz-thitoghz------thoz-thitoghn

Third person----ghaz-thitoghl-------ghoz-thitoghm

nai888
07-12-2010, 01:09 AM
In the conlang which I've been working on, Eindo, for which I am currently creating a map, the translation of the above phrases would be completely different depending on the context of the sentence. Eindo is a highly agglutinating language, meaning (partially) that derivation is done by adding affixes to the roots of the words. I have a suffix which means "to be [a noun]," and another which means "to be [an adjective]."

For example, to say "I am a student," one would say "ealoimaŧofan" which is pronounced /ʒe'lo.ʃim.θofn/ in which the final -ofa- signifies the verb "to be," the following -n signifies the first person singular, and the rest of the word is the noun "student." (This one word, in fact, contains seven morphemes, if you include the -n conjugation, because I derived the word student from the root noun "alo," knowledge, through various other derivations, which demonstrates some of the possible agglutination in this language.)

Similarly, in order to say "I am happy," one would say "Řinisan" which is pronounced /'rinisn/ in which the final -isa- signifies the verb "to be."

The only time the verb "to be" is a separate verb is to say essentially that an object exists, takes place (when speaking of an event), or with some locative phrases, though in most cases these should also be expressed with suffixes. As this is the only way that I can actually translate your text without having any more information, I will use this verb, despite its much more limited usage than in most European languages. It just happens to be, quite literally, the most simple verb in the language, with the infinitive form, "ađa," being comparable to the hypothetical Spanish verbs "ar," "er," and "ir" (though not the one meaning "to go," since it is such an idiosyncratic conjugation), in which essentially the whole word would be the infinitive suffix.

I'll also include the pronouns in parentheses, even though they are rarely included except for clarification or emphasis. It should be noted, though, that there are also more persons than there are in most European languages as I've included a third number between singular and plural: paucal, which essentially means "a few" and is used for numbers between 2 and 4 or 5, and I've also included an inclusive/exclusive distinction as well as a human/non-human distinction.

An (no). - I am.
As (so). - You are.
At (to). - He/She is.
Al (lo). - It is.
Aan (noa). - We few (including the addressee) are.
Aař (řoa). - We few (excluding the addressee) are.
Aas (soa). - You few are.
Aat (toa). - They few are.
Aal (loa). - They (non-human) few are.
Ain (noi). - We (including the addressee) are.
Aiř (řoi). - We (excluding the addressee) are.
Ais (soi). - You all are.
Ait (toi). - They are.
Ail (loi). - They (non-human) are.

So you see, it's not always such an easy thing to do to translate something like that, especially with a verb like "to be" which is pretty much always idiosyncratic in some way, because of its such varied definitions (after all, Spanish, which is European, has two distinct verbs which both mean "to be," with slightly different definitions).


Wow, I feel like I just wrote an essay! I felt like it definitely needed explanation, though. And to think, I was considering attempting to make a polysynthetic language, which has even MORE agglutination than mine does, which means that even longer, more complex phrases or sentences could be expressed with single words!

hunab.cu
07-27-2010, 12:04 PM
Okay, linguistics, a hobbyhorse of mine :D
These come for ather'neiv, one of conlangs for a world I'm working on for sometime now. The text is arranged as:
ather'neiv phrase = meta-language notation (logical meaning) = English equivalent

Are/Ide/Dre se = {me-male}/{me-female}/{me-nonhuman} {'to be'-present time-first person singular} = I am
Arre/Idre/Drere sare = {you-male}/{you-female}/{you-nonhuman} {'to be'-present time-second person singular} = You are
Arge/Idege/Drege sade = {he}/{she}/{non-human} {'to be'-present time-third person singular} = He/She/"It" is

Arve/Ideve/Dreve se = {we-males-with you}/{we-females-with you}/{we-with you} {'to be'-present time-first person singular inclusive} = We are
Arthe/Idethe/Drethe se = {we-males-without you}/{we-females-without you}/{we-without you} {'to be'-present time-first person singular exclusive} = We are
Arte/Ite/Drete se = {you-males}/{you-females}/{you-plural} {'to be'-present time-second person plural} = You are
Arshe/Ideshe/Dreshe se = {they-males}/{they-females}/{they} {'to be'-present time-third person plural} = They are

It's hard to notice from this example, but the language itself is highly agglutinative and very precise. As you can see above, the same pronoun group (dre, drere etc.) has a different meaning when singular and plural. The 'nonhuman' meaning in singular is meant for all things non-sentient, while plural is just for anything: sentients of any gender, animals, stones...
I've got also few other conlangs for this universe coming up, but none of them is usable yet.

Kharon Alpua
08-30-2010, 12:10 AM
Does anyone have a conlang?
If so please translate this:

All of these are c (pronounced like "each") constructions in my primary conlang -- the verb does not vary by person, number or gender, only by tense. The pronouns vary by number and gender, but verbs do not shift to match the gender or number of a pronoun, only the timing, completion, or adverbial state of the action. The contruction itself will never stand alone with the exception of Xi c, and even this stands alone only as a name meaning "The one which is"; the full name is "xi c, xi cikun, xi ns", or "the one which is, the one which was, the one which will be", and it's a divine name shortened to a four-letter Word as XIC or XIIC.



I Yi c
You Ci c
He Ji c
She Si c
It Xi c (can specifically mean a non-gendered being or an object)
We Ki c
You all Aci c
They Shi c


All of these are often shortened in casal use, both spoken and written, with the initial consonant flowing directly into the c, and although xi is a special case as noted above, it's distinguished plainly in writing (all proper names are written entirely in greater form letters, and the language does have spacing between words), sometimes of "it is" the unique term "hc" is used in speaking, to avoid confusion with the divine name -- the compound makes no sense at face value of "and is", only that in speech /x/ and /h/ are sometimes interchanged (both ways) by dialect, slur, or complex artistic choice.

phlegethon
02-28-2012, 10:11 AM
I'm working on Nga right now. By all rights, it's a tonal language, but I don't like writing all those tones out. So, here you are.

SIngular
I am- Huvag gei wozhub ya
You are- Huvag dura wozhub ya
He/She/It is- Huvag none wozhub ya
Dual
We are- Huvag geim wozhub ya
You are- Huvag duram wozhub ya
They are- Huvag nonem wozhub ya
Plural
We are- Huvag geij wozhub ya
You are- Huvag duraj wozhub ya
They are- Huvag nonej wozhub ya
You'll notice that the only thing that changes is the pronoun. To tell the truth, the verb doesn't even vary from tense to tense (as an example, consider Huvag nonem wozhun ya, or "They will be". The verb modifier is the only thing that varies.

Miker
02-28-2012, 04:36 PM
I might as well jump in with my language. It's an IE lang but doesn't conjugate for person/number/gender and does not have a plural third person pronoun(being derived from demonstratives). Pronouns are similar to English on purpose.
I am: Ic eseth
You are: Ya eseth
He/It is: So eseth
She is: Se eseth
We are: Wei eseth

daemaree
07-29-2012, 01:33 AM
Those phrases are impossible to translate into my conlang, Lybran without context. :)

In Lybran, there is no verb "to be"... and pronouns don't exist. But, it's interesting to think about these kinds of translation issues.

ManOfSteel
07-31-2012, 12:44 AM
EBENESE

TO BE

Sohn du (I am)
Kreh du (you are)
Seh du (he is (prime))
Sehnis du (he is (secondary))
Veh du (she is (prime))
Vehnis du (she is (secondary))
Keh du (it is)
Sohnam du (we are, excluding you)
Sohna du (we are, including you)
Na du (y'all are)
Gra du (they are (prime))
Granis du (they are (secondary))
Gran du (plural it is... i.e. they (objects) are)

There are even pronouns for third and forth subjects. The prime and secondary are employed to differentiate between two or more subjects. For instance, in English, if you said, "Bob sat next to Fred. He put his hand on his thigh." Bob is the subject so he's considered prime, but did Bob put his hand on his own thigh, or is Bob trying to get frisky with Fred? You can't tell. But in Ebenese you'd use the prime pronoun for Bob and the secondary pronoun (in this sentence you'd use the possessive mahve) for Fred, and that way you'd know that Bob and Fred's friendship is special.

Now if you were at a party and you told your friend "We're going to get ice cream," does that mean that they're all going to the ice cream store and they'll see you later? Or does it mean all of us are going to get ice cream so get in the car? It can be an awkward situation not knowing if you're being told goodbye or being invited. With sohnam and sohna there's no doubt.

Bagliun Edar
04-26-2014, 12:47 PM
I have a conlang on which I have been working for about a year now. It's intended to be nice sounding and have an alien feeling, it's a humanization of an etheric language spoken by the gods. Originally, it was just a naming language to be used to name the character souls, so that I could track them reincarnation to reincarnation. It's now much more than just a naming language. More importantly, it's my vehicle to amateurly learn about linguistics. So here goes my attempt to translate the op sentences.

Godspeech (my conlang's name) does not have a copula ("to be" verb) per se. Most of the times, an adjective used as a verb is the way to translate copula-using sentences. The op sentences, exactly as they are, are untranslatable to Godspeech, so they must be translated by using other means.

The following is a declaration of divine authority, identifying the subject as a divine lord. The subject is omitted in this example:
Arbeja.
[ˈaɾbɛʒa]
arbe-ja
I_am-IND.BL
I am

EDIT: BL: blunt. When spoken by a higher ranking being, the it's blunt. It's rude otherwise.

A more complete sentence would be:
Bagliun Edar arbeja.
meaning "I am Lord Bagliun".
The nickname I'm using in this board is a name of a character of mine who is one of the gods who speak the original etheric language on which Godspeech is based. Edar is a title meaning divine lord, Bagliun is his proper name, from bagli "to perceive" and -un meaning "doer" (not exactly).

Godspeech limits the use of personal pronouns and discourages their usage. Personal pronouns are clitics for first and second persons only.
Amēnjoabil.
[ˈamɛːnʒɔˌabil]
amēn-jo-abil
ADJ-IND.POL-1SG.NOM
I am

Amēnjoamel.
[ˈamɛːnʒɔˌamɛl]
amēn-jo-amel
ADJ-IND.POL-2SG.NOM
You are

Amēnjovam.
[ˈamɛːnˌʒɔvam]
amēn-jo-vam
ADJ-IND.POL-1PL.NOM
We are

Amēnjother.
[ˈamɛːnˌʒɔɛɾ]
amēn-jo-ther
ADJ-IND.POL-2PL.NOM
You are

Word amēn is a pro-adjective. It takes a meaning given by the context in which it appears, so any of the above sentences mean "I/you/we am/are [anything defined by context]".

The gods use noun phrases instead of pronouns more often; the third person cannot be supplied by pronouns, and must be provided with noun phrases. Noun phrases used for this purpose include the proper name of the person being spoken of, his title or profession, some kind of socially defined reference, or just "this (or that) person" when there is no other way.

Abameurodo amēnjo.
[ˈabamɛuˌɾɔdɔ ˈamɛːnʒɔ]
abam-e-uro-do amēn-jo
person-SG.DEF.MASC-1.this-TOP ADJ-IND.POL
I am
Lit. This person is.

Abamearedo amēnjo.
[ˈabamɛaˌɾɛdɔ ˈamɛːnʒɔ]
abam-e-are-do amēn-jo
person-SG.DEF.MASC-2.that-TOP ADJ-IND.POL
You are
Lit. That person is.

Abameazomdo amēnjo.
[ˈabamɛaˌzɔmdɔ ˈamɛːʒɔ]
abam-e-azom-do amēn-jo
person-SG.DEF.MASC-3.that-TOP ADJ-IND.POL
He is
Lit. That person is.

Abamiazomdo amēnjo.
[ˈabamiaˌzɔmdɔ ˈamɛːnʒɔ]
abam-i-azom-do amēn-jo
person-SG.DEF.FEM-3.that-TOP ADJ-IND.POL
She is
Lit. That person is.

Izauazomdo amēnjo.
[ˈizauaˌzɔmdɔ ˈamɛːnʒɔ]
iza-u-azom-do amēn-jo
thing-SG.DEF.NEUT-3.that-TOP ADJ-IND.POL
It is
Lit. That thing is.

The word "iza" means "useful thing". To refer to a "useless thing" you use "izi", and similarly "izu" is equivalent to "trash".

Abamjilurodo amēnjo.
[ˈabamʒiluˌɾɔdɔ ˈamɛːnʒɔ]
abam-jil-uro-do amēn-jo
person-DU.DEF.MASC-1.this-TOP ADJ-IND.POL
We are

Abamjilaredo amēnjo.
[ˈabamʒilaˌɾɛdɔ ˈamɛːnʒɔ]
abam-jil-are-do amēn-jo
person-DU.DEF.MASC-2.that-TOP ADJ-IND.POL
You are

Abamjirazomdo amēnjo.
[ˈabamʒiɾazɔmdɔ ˈamɛːnʒɔ]
abam-jir-azom-do amēn-jo
person-DU.DEF.NEUT-3.that-TOP ADJ-IND.POL
They are

For the English plurals, there are far more choices in Godspeech to translate these three sentences. I chose to use the dual number for all three, and the neuter gender for the last one. Godspeech's table of noun inflections is quite big.

feanaaro
04-26-2014, 02:02 PM
It's interesting how so many conlangs seem to lack an independent "to be" verb. That's the case of mine too, actually. My imaginary people don't even have separate verbal forms, they just have words expressing concepts that can be "declined" (not quite the right term, I guess) in a predicative and in a nominal form (and eventually further modified into adjectives).
Thus, if by "I am" etc., you simply mean the expression that someone is, they would just say the pronoun, but indeed the point is that they would not think in that way and would not say that at all. Oh, they also don't distinguish between singular and plural in most cases, but rely on numeral adjectives to convey numbers. (Although there is also a related languages which has similar lexicon but a more conventional grammar structure, which I haven't developed yet).

Thus (not very interesting, in the end):
I/we (am/are) =
You (are) = D
He/she/they (is/are) = in

Bagliun Edar
04-26-2014, 05:15 PM
It's interesting how so many conlangs seem to lack an independent "to be" verb. That's the case of mine too, actually. My imaginary people don't even have separate verbal forms, they just have words expressing concepts that can be "declined" (not quite the right term, I guess) in a predicative and in a nominal form (and eventually further modified into adjectives).Godspeech is pro-drop too (if that's what you mean).


Thus, if by "I am" etc., you simply mean the expression that someone is, they would just say the pronoun, but indeed the point is that they would not think in that way and would not say that at all.Godspeech may be like that too most of the times. For example, a lord may ask a servant:

Bemdobrado lamān rejembejaol.
[ˈbɛmdɔˌbɾadɔ ˈlamaːn ˈɾɛʒɛmbɛˌʒaɔl]
bemdo-bra-do lam-ān r<ej>embejaol
know-EVID.BL-TOP say-IMP.BL <INF>intelligent
Who do you know is intelligent?
Lit. About (someone) (you) know, tell me who is intelligent.

To this, the servant may reply:

Ajēbameuro.
[ˈajɛbamɛˌuɾɔ]
a<jē>bam-e-uro
<HBL>person-SG.DEF.MASC-1.this
I (am).
Lit. This person.

Yet, he simply may reply:
Amēnji.
[ˈamɛːnʒi]
amēn-ji
ADJ-IND.XPOL
(I/you/he/she/we/they) am/are/is.

which is extremely ambiguous.

feanaaro
04-27-2014, 12:12 AM
Actually no, it's quite the opposite of pronoun-dropping. Since words are not declined by either gender or number it is imperative to have explicit pronouns to make anything understandable; even more than in a language such as English.

Bagliun Edar
04-27-2014, 10:42 AM
Actually no, it's quite the opposite of pronoun-dropping. Since words are not declined by either gender or number it is imperative to have explicit pronouns to make anything understandable; even more than in a language such as English.Interesting. I chose my language would allow to drop anything, even if it makes it meaningless. In my example above, amēnji meaning (I/you/he/she/we/they) am/are/is, the inflection -ji marks the verbal adjective amēn with indicative mood, extreme politeness, and affirmative. There's no indication of gender or number, so leaving out anything else, makes it highly ambiguous and potentially meaningless, which may be the speaker's intention.