What is the goal of this map? What does it need to depict, and how will it be used? What kind of scale are we looking at? What kind of environment (tundra, tropical)?
The step I usually tackle after coastlines is mountains and elevation. That informs where the rivers will go, which tells me where the cities will probably be. City placement is also determined by the availability of natural resources: are there oyster beds somewhere? Tin or iron to be mined? A forest to provide timber?