In both cases you are selecting your land mass shape and then enlarging it. In the case of the rings you are doing a grow selection (from the selection menu) and then stroke selection ( from the edit menu) most likely with a 1px solid line. Repeat that a couple of times and voila, rings. For the line version you could grow it or fuzzy select (or color select) with a larger threshold to get the shape you want and then fill with you lined pattern. It goes without saying (perhaps) that you would do these on their own layer (just in case).