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Thread: Cartographic Terminology

  1. #21
      Arkkeeper is offline
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    Info N-Q

    national geodetic vertical datum of 1929
    Reference surface established by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey in 1929 as the datum to which relief features and elevation data are referenced in the conterminous United States; formerly called "mean sea level 1929."

    National Map Accuracy Standards
    Specifications promulgated by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget to govern accuracy of topographic and other maps produced by Federal Agencies.


    navigable waters
    Water usable, with or without improvements, as routes for commerce in the customary means of travel on water.

    neatline
    Line separating the body of a map from the map margin. On a standard quadrangle map, the neatlines are the meridians and parallels delimiting the quadrangle.

    oceanic survey
    Survey or examination of condition in the ocean or any part of it, with reference to animal or plant life, chemical elements present, temperature gradients, etc. See: hydrographic survey

    offshore
    Comparatively flat zone of variable width that extends from the outer margin of the rather steeply sloping shoreface to the edge of the continental shelf.

    orientation
    Establishing correct relationship in direction with reference to points of the compass; the state of being in correct relationship in direction with reference to the points of the compass.

    origin of coordinates
    Point in a system of coordinates that serves as a zero point in computing the system's elements or in prescribing its use.

    orthophotograph
    Photograph having the properties of an orthographic projection. It is derived from a conventional perspective photograph by simple or differential rectification so that image displacements caused by camera tilt and terrain relief are removed.

    orthophotographic map
    Map produced by assembling orthophotographs at a specified uniform scale in a map format.

    orthophotomap
    Orthophotographic map with contours and cartographic treatment, presented in a standard format, and related to standard reference systems.

    orthophotoquad
    Monocolor orthophotgraphic map presented in a standard quadrangle format and related to standard reference systems. It has no contours and little or cartographic treatment.

    orthophotoscope
    Photomechanical device used in conjunction with a double-projection stereoplotter for producing orthophotograph.

    overedge
    Any portion of a map lying outside the nominal map border (neatline).

    overlay
    Printing or drawing on a transparent or translucent medium intended to be placed in register on a map or other graphic and which shows details not appearing or requiring special emphasis on the base material.

    overprint
    New material printed on a map or chart to show data of importance or special use, in addition to those data originally printed.


    parallel of latitude
    A circle, or approximation of a circle, on the surface of the Earth, parallel tot he Equator, and connecting points of equal latitude; a circle of the celestial sphere parallel to the ecliptic, and connecting points of equal celestial latitude.

    photogrammetry
    Science or art of obtaining reliable measurements or information from photographs or other sensing systems.

    photomap (photographic map)
    Map made by adding marginal information, descriptive data, and a reference system to a photograph or assembly of photographs.

    plain
    Region of uniform general slope, comparatively level, of considerable extent, and not broken by marked elevations and depressions (it may be an extensive valley floor or a plateau summit); an extent of level or nearly level land; a flat, gently sloping, or nearly level region of the sea floor.

    planetable
    Instrument consisting essentially of a drawing board on a tripod and some type of sighting device (alidade) with attached straightedge, used for plotting the lines of survey directly from observation in the field.

    planimetric map
    See: map, planimetric

    planimetry
    Plan details of a map - those having no indication of relief or contour.

    plat
    Diagram drawn to scale showing all essential data pertaining to the boundaries and subdivisions of a tract of land, as determined by survey or protraction. As used by the Bureau of Land Management, the drawing which represents the particular area included in a survey, such as township, private land claim, or mineral claim, and the lines surveyed, established, or retraced, showing the direction and length of each such line; The relation to the adjoining official surveys; the boundaries, descriptions, and area of each parcel of land subdivided; and, as nearly as may be practicable, a representation of the relief and improvements within the limits of the survey.

    prime meridian
    Meridian of longitude 0 degrees, used as the origin for measurements of longitude. The meridian of Greenwich, England, is the internationally accepted prime meridian on most charts. However, local or national prime meridians are occasionally used.

    projection, map
    See: map, projection

    public land system
    Public lands are subdivided by a rectangular system of surveys established and regulated by the Bureau of Land Management. The standard format for subdivision is by townshipsmeasuring 6 miles (480 chains) on a side. Townships are further subdivided into 36 numbered sections of 1 square mile (640 acres) each.

    quad-centered photograph
    Middle exposure of a phototriplet (three consecutive aerial photographs) take so that the middle photograph is exposed directly above the center of the quadrangle and the preceding and following photographs are exposed directly above the boundaries of the quadrangle. The flying height is set such that the quad-centered photograph covers the entire quadrangle.

    quadrangle
    Four-sided area, bounded by parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude used as an area unit in mapping (dimensions are not necessarily the same in both directions). Also, a geometric figure of significance in geodetic surveying.
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  2. #22
      Arkkeeper is offline
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    radial-line plotting
    Determination of the location of points by the successive intersection and resection of direction lines radiating from the radial centers of overlapping aerial photographs.

    rectification, differential
    The process of scanning and reprojecting a photograph onto a horizontal plane in differential elements to remove displacements caused by tilt and relief. The process may be accomplished by any one of a number of instruments developed specifically for the purpose.

    rectification, simple
    Projection of an aerial photograph (mathematically, graphically, or photographically) from its plane onto a horizontal plane by translation, rotation, and (or) scale change to remove displacement due to tilt of the camera.

    relief
    Elevations and depressions of the land or sea bottom.

    relief shading
    Technique for making hypsography on a map appear three dimensional by the use of graded shadow effects. Generally, the features are shaded as though illuminated from the northwest.

    remote sensing
    Process of detecting and (or) monitoring chemical or physical properties of an area by measuring its reflected and emitted radiation.

    representational fraction
    Scale of a map or chart expressed as a fraction or ratio that relates unit distance on the map to distance measured in the same unit on the ground.

    reproduction
    Summation of all processes involved in printing copies from an original drawing. A printed copy of an original drawing made by the processes of reproduction

    scale
    Relationship existing between a distance on a map, chart, or photograph and the corresponding distance on the Earth.

    sea level (water level)
    Height of the surface of the sea at any given time.

    section
    Unit of subdivision of a township; normally a quadrangle 1 mile square with boundaries conforming to meridians and parallels within established limits, and containing 640 acres as nearly as practicable.

    sensor
    Technical means, usually electronic, to extend man's natural senses by detecting emitted or reflected energy. The energy may be nuclear, electromagnetic (including the visible and invisible portions of the spectrum), chemical, biological, thermal, or mechanical

    shoreline
    Intersection of the land with the water surface.

    slope map
    See: map, slope

    soil map
    See: map, soil

    spheroid
    Mathematical figure closely approaching the geoid in form and size and used as a surface of reference for geodetic surveys. A reference spheroid or ellipsoid is a spheroid determined by revolving an ellipse about its shorter (polar) axis and used as a base for geodetic surveys of a large section of the Earth (such as the Clarke spheroid of 1866 which is used for geodetic surveys in the United States).

    spot elevation
    Point on a map or chart whose height above a specified datum is noted, usually by a dot or a small sawbuck and elevation value. Elevations are shown, on a selective basis, for road forks and intersections, grade crossings summit of hills, mountain

    stadia
    Technique of distance measurement wherein the observer reads the intercept subtended on a graduated rod between two marks on the reticle of the telescope.

    standard-accuracy adjustment
    See: adjustment, standard-accuracy

    state plane coordinate system
    Coordinate systems established by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey (now the National Ocean Survey), usually one for each state, for use in defining positions of points in terms of plane rectangular (x,y) coordinates.

    stereocompilation
    Production of a map or chart manuscript from aerial photographs and geodetic control data by means of photogrammetric instruments.

    stereoplotter
    Instrument for plotting a map by observation of stereomodels formed by pairs of photographs.

    stereoscopic
    Pertaining to the use of binocular vision for observation of a pair of overlapping photographs or other perspective views, giving impression of depth.

    storm evacuation map
    See: map, storm evacuation

    subsidence
    Decrease in the elevation of land surface due to tectonic, seismic, or artificial forces, without removal of surface material.

    survey
    Orderly process of determining data relating to any physical or chemical characteristics of the Earth. The associated data obtained in a survey. An organization engaged in making a survey.

    tacheometer (tachymeter)
    Surveying instrument designed for use in the rapid determination of distance, direction, and difference of elevation from a single observation, using a short base which may be an intergraph part of the instrument.

    thematic map
    See: map, thematic

    theodolite
    Precision surveying instrument for measuring horizontal and vertical angles.

    tide
    Periodic rise and fall of the water resulting from gravitational interactions between the Sun, Moon, and Earth. The vertical component of the particulate motion of a tidal wave. Although the accompanying horizontal movement of the water is part of the same phenomenon, it is preferable to designate this motion as tidal current.

    topographic map
    See: map, topographic

    topography
    Configuration (relief) of the land surface; the graphic delineation or portrayal of that configuration in map form, as by contour lines; in oceanography the term is applied to a surface such as the sea bottom or surface of given characteristics within the water mass.

    township
    Unit of survey of the public lands of the United States, normally a quadrangle approximately 6 miles on a side with boundaries conforming to meridians and parallels within established limits, containing 36 sections. Also, in minor governmental subdivision.

    transit
    Precision surveying instrument; a theodolite in which the telescope can be reversed in direction by rotation about its horizontal axis.

    traverse
    Sequence of lengths and directions of lines connecting a series of stations, obtained from field measurements, and used in determining positions of the stations.

    triangulation
    Method of extending horizontal position on the surface of the Earth by measuring the angles of triangles and the included sides of selected triangles.

    trilateration
    Method of surveying wherein the lengths of the triangle sides are measured, usually by electronic methods, and the angles are computed from the measured lengths. Compare with triangulation.

    Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) grid
    Military grid system based on the transverse Mercator projection, applied to maps of the Earth's surface extending from the Equator to 84 Degrees north and 80 degrees south latitudes

    upland
    Highland; ground elevation above the lowlands along rivers or between hills.

    zenith telescope
    Instrument for observing starts near the zenith (a point on the celestial sphere directly above the observer's position). ground below the water table where all the pores in rock, sediment, and soil are filled with water
    "The Enemy's Gate Is Down" - Ender Wiggen, Ender's Game, Orson Scott Card

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    All Maps are either Copyright J.L.Odom and Bardic Fire Studios or under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 United States License (Note it applies to all countries even though it's United States)

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      Arkkeeper is offline
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    WHEEWW thats everything, I hope it wasn't too much.
    "The Enemy's Gate Is Down" - Ender Wiggen, Ender's Game, Orson Scott Card

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    All Maps are either Copyright J.L.Odom and Bardic Fire Studios or under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 United States License (Note it applies to all countries even though it's United States)

  4. #24
    Guild Journeyer Facebook Connected rpgmapmaker's Avatar
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    Information overload!!!

    Looks like you have the energy to make Wiki entries or write a book ... just out of curiosity where did you get the list?

    I am "assuming" that you copied and pasted this from somewhere... if so, it might be a better idea to just give a link for this type of resource next time... not to be hard on you as this is a great... great... list

    -Chris
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  5. #25
      Arkkeeper is offline
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    YAY! for minute I thought I was going to get scolded and all that. Yeah the thought of a link just didn't occur then, I did it all in the heat of the moment so to speak. I haven't even read it all but I should, anywhos here's the link: Clicky

    It's a site called WorldAtlas.com
    "The Enemy's Gate Is Down" - Ender Wiggen, Ender's Game, Orson Scott Card

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  6. #26
      Karro is offline
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    Quote Originally Posted by Arkkeeper View Post

    Latitude: Distance Measuring lines going North and South

    Longitude: Distance Measuring lines going East and West "Remember when a map has North up, The Longitude lines are long
    These appear a bit confusing by these descriptions. Of course we all know what Latitude and Longitude are. For clarification:

    Longitude: Lines of Longitude are drawn from the North Pole to the South Pole, and are arranged heading from east to west. Lines of Longitude are also sometimes referred to as Meridians. All lines of Longitude meet at the North and South Poles (though on some map projections they all appear to be parallel and usually equidistant throughout).

    Latitude: Lines of Latitude run perpendicular to a north-oriented map, running from west to east. They are parallel lines based on the arc angle from the equator, and measure distance from the equator. Also, in primary school, you may have been taught to associate LATitude with FATitude to remind you of their orientation, or at least I was.
    Last edited by Karro; 05-30-2008 at 01:39 PM.

  7. #27
      Arkkeeper is offline
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    Yeah that was just my stupid definitions and I qouted the Meme wrong, When North is up Longitude is long and Latitude is laying down.
    "The Enemy's Gate Is Down" - Ender Wiggen, Ender's Game, Orson Scott Card

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    All Maps are either Copyright J.L.Odom and Bardic Fire Studios or under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 United States License (Note it applies to all countries even though it's United States)

  8. #28
    Guild Master Gracious Donor Midgardsormr's Avatar
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    Recto: The front side of a page.

    Verso: The back side of a page.

    Age-toning: A descriptive word for areas of discoloration or browning that have appeared on old maps over the years. Generally from improper storage and handling.

    Blue-Back chart: A method used by private publishers in London during the 19th century to distinguish them from the official Admiralty charts. The name came from the heavy blue paper backing used by publishers to strengthen the charts. The blue-backing was also used by American chartmakers Edmund Blunt and George Eldridge in the late 19th/early 20th century.

    from http://www.gracegalleries.com/Glossary_of_Map_Terms.htm
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  9. #29
      cyfir is offline
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    Quote Originally Posted by su_liam View Post
    Gebirge - (German) mountains, mountain range
    Erg - (Arabic) dune, sandy desert
    Hamada - (Arabic) rocky plateau
    Chott - (Arabic) salt lake
    Djebel - (Arabic) mountain
    Nahr - (Arabic) river
    Oued - (Arabic) river
    Sahara - (Arabic) desert, plain
    Sebkha - (Arabic) salt marsh

    There's a start.
    Some more Arabic topographical terms:
    Buhiyra - Lake (Generally freshwater)
    Bahr - Sea
    Tal - Hill
    Khalij - Gulf
    Qanat - Canal

    Administrative Terms:
    Wilayat - State or Province
    Balad - Region or County
    Medina - City
    Ruba' - Quarter (as in "foreign quarter")
    Hayy - District

    Those are just off the top of my head; if you have specific terms you'd like for a middle-eastern-themed map let me know.

  10. #30

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