Well, climate changes a lot based heavily on both Latitude and Altitude.
In this thread I've been working on my own world map, I ran through these sorts of issues. I built a very basic climate ladder for my map based on coriolis/wind effects at various latitudes. I learned that areas are drier or wetter in part whether the wind was carrying moisture (from a body of water) into an area or away from an area.
And here is a tutorial with some info on tectonics (which affect mountain placement, which in turn affect cliamte) and in that thread is a link (here) to a free pdf download from Expeditious Retreat Press that has a pretty decent Climate primer contained in it.
Additional links: here
And another search of the forum on "Climate" will probably yield additional results!