Boy, my farmgirl roots are coming in handy today
Actually, it depends on more than just the area...
Even in a low tech situation, *most* crops can be grown in nearly any climate *as long as there's water*.
Take any random crop - even a made up one - let's call it Garglesnaps.
If I live in a COOL/mildly warm climate, Garglesnaps need about 5-7 inches of rainfall per month. (Keep in mind that that's 7 inches of water over ALL the soil)
Obviously, if there's no rain, you need to PROVIDE that much water in other ways, like irrigation. In the same TEMPERATURES and conditions, it doesn't matter if the water is from rain or irrigation, as long as they get the right amount.
However, if you move somewhere hot/dry, the Garglesnaps will need MORE water.
That being said... Certain plants will die in extremes of heat or cold. And some plants thrive *better* in certain climates, making them more logical/profitable.
Greens and Root vegetables (lettuce, spinach, carrots, potatoes) do well in extreme heat - but they need TONS of water.
So places like the southern USA are good, hot and humid.
Corn and beans and similar crops do well with middling temperatures. They need less water, but still quite a bit.
Tomatoes, peppers, opuntia (prickly pears): These types of plants can grow with less water than most... they do well almost anywhere.
Grains: For rice.. you need VERY wet, marshy plots of land. For wheat... it's kind of weird. Different TYPES of wheat do better in different temperatures - which is why you have winter wheat and Spring wheat... but there are also different types of wheat best suited for breads, or for pastas.... You could probably grow SOME type of wheat almost anywhere. Oats (and Barley) do best with cooler, dry climes.
Most trees (apple, pear, plum) will grow anywhere, as long as you have sufficient water. Some do best in hot, wet, humid climes, (Bananas, mangoes, oranges). Very few (olives, figs) will grow well in desert-like temps.