Here's the most useful source on that i've ever found:
Geoff's Climate Cookbook
Unfortunately it is no longer online, but you can still find it on the wayback machine. But the images aren't included.
I previously saved the page, which is kinda clunkly, but the pictures are intact. See the attached PDF.
And don't worry, as long as you are happy with where your mountains/islands are, techtonics aren't needed for any climactic stuff.
EDIT: added the ".webarchive.zip" version, which is prettier, but i think will only open in Safari.