This baby first generates a spherical height map (using 3d perlin noise) and then vectorizes the shapes of the landmasses. I then pull in those landmassesand subdivide them into individual territories.

Here's an example of a render:

My spherical vector world map generator-example.png

The 3D viewer is made in WebGL but it's not quality code... and the geometry is 28mb so it takes some time to load